Criminology Test 2

43 cards

test 2. march 8th 


 
  
Created Mar 6, 2011
by
kaismith

 

 
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  Side A   Side B
1
based upon facial and other physical featuresdates back to 1800thought you could judge character...
 
physiognomy
2
based on examination of shape of the skullthought we could determien character and intelligence...
 
phrenology
3
soft and fat
 
endomorphic
4
built and muscularmost likely to be criminals
 
mesomorphic
5
thin and frail
 
ectomorphic
6
family tree studies, statistical comparison, twin studies, adoption studies
 
heredity studies
7
Optimal stimulation theoryto feel normal have to do more extreme for arousal crime is...
 
arousal theory
8
5 Levelsphysiological-food and watersafety-feeling securebelongingness-love/relationshipsself-esteem-people...
 
Maslow: Heirarchy of Needs 
9
Crime occurs with the attempt to fill basic needs or at the top with self actualization
 
Maslow Heirarchy of Needs 
10
crime is result of individuals adapting to the helplessness caused by oppression. 
 
Halleck 
11
conformityactivism-change wrongs of societycombo of conformity and activismlegal activismmental...
 
Halleck says: people don't want to feel helpless so they do this
12
social oppression (racial/gender discrimination) intimate oppression (two person interactions) 
 
Objective Oppression 
13
oppressed from withinprojected oppression
 
subjective oppression 
14
3 stages of moral reasoning 
 
Cobern 
15
til age 10-avoiding punishment is the only reason you follow rules 
 
preconventional
16
ages:10-20 believes in following norms of society 
 
conventional
17
incorporate broad principles of morality (helping with euthanasia)
 
Post-conventional 
18
Dominant theory within criminology. -1950'sabout the way society is organized
 
Social Structure 
19
related to systems of stratification and inequalityRaceGenderClass
 
social structure 
20
root source of crime is structure of society 
 
Structure theory
21
focuses on the process of becoming a criminalLearn theories-you learn criminal behavior 
 
Process theory 
22
crime is the result social disorganization (anomie) Crime is the result of political disorganization...
 
Social Disorganization Theory 
23
Central Business District always has highest crime rate bc immigrants would settle here without...
 
Concentric Zone Model
24
Not much differentfocuses on factors that contribute to disorganized neighborhoodsunemploymentracial/social...
 
Contemporary social disorganization theory 
25
in times of rapid social change normlessness(anomie) is not good for society 
 
Strain or Anomie Theory
26
says everyone can achieve american dream but then societal structure limits that 
 
Cultural contradiction 
27
Accept both goals and means (Merton)
 
conformity
28
accept goals but reject means most crime is result of this 
 
innovation
29
reject goals but accept meansex. janitor-will never get rich but still works hard 
 
ritualism
30
reject both goals and means ex.outcasts of society
 
retreatism 
31
Rejects goals and means and substitutes for alternatives could explain some crime 
 
Rebellion 
32
attempts to explain why the violent crime rate in U.S. is so much higher than in other countries 
 
Institutional anomie theory
33
idea of american dream such a big part of culture. crime rate is so high because of the emphasis...
 
Explanation for Institutional anomie theory
34
primacy of economy has weakened other institutions of social control. so focused on the economy...
 
Explanation for Institutional Anomie Theory
35
Contemporary theory by Robert Agnew
 
General Strain Theory
36
crime results from negative affective emotional states ex. anger, depression, frustration-these...
 
General Strain Theory
37
-failure to achieve goals-disjunction between expectations and achievements-removal of positive...
 
4 Causes of Strain
38
Social Disorganization Approach
 
Macro theory
39
Merton's Theory-normlessness that people feel happens at individual level 
 
micro theory
40
institutional anomie theory-looks to explain crime rate
 
macro theory
41
locates root source of crime in cultural patterns of lower class
 
cultural deviance theories 
42
lower class has created a distinctive culture-opposes the mainstream
 
Miller focal concerns1950's
43
Trouble Toughnesssmartnessexcitementfateautonomy
 
Focal Concerns


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