Criminology Test 2

43 cards

Test 2. March 8th 

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based upon facial and other physical featuresdates back to 1800thought you could judge character by facial features
 
physiognomy
based on examination of shape of the skullthought we could determien character and intelligence by skull shape
 
phrenology
soft and fat
 
endomorphic
built and muscularmost likely to be criminals
 
mesomorphic
thin and frail
 
ectomorphic
family tree studies, statistical comparison, twin studies, adoption studies
 
heredity studies
Optimal stimulation theoryto feel normal have to do more extreme for arousal crime is the means for raising arousal 
 
arousal theory
5 Levelsphysiological-food and watersafety-feeling securebelongingness-love/relationshipsself-esteem-people to see you positivelyself-actualization-become complete personSays people are essentially good 
 
Maslow: Heirarchy of Needs 
Crime occurs with the attempt to fill basic needs or at the top with self actualization
 
Maslow Heirarchy of Needs 
crime is result of individuals adapting to the helplessness caused by oppression. 
 
Halleck 
conformityactivism-change wrongs of societycombo of conformity and activismlegal activismmental illnesscriminality: changing environment 
 
Halleck says: people don't want to feel helpless so they do this
social oppression (racial/gender discrimination) intimate oppression (two person interactions) 
 
Objective Oppression 
oppressed from withinprojected oppression
 
subjective oppression 
3 stages of moral reasoning 
 
Cobern 
til age 10-avoiding punishment is the only reason you follow rules 
 
preconventional
ages:10-20 believes in following norms of society 
 
conventional
incorporate broad principles of morality (helping with euthanasia)
 
Post-conventional 
Dominant theory within criminology. -1950'sabout the way society is organized
 
Social Structure 
related to systems of stratification and inequalityRaceGenderClass
 
social structure 
root source of crime is structure of society 
 
Structure theory
focuses on the process of becoming a criminalLearn theories-you learn criminal behavior 
 
Process theory 
crime is the result social disorganization (anomie) Crime is the result of political disorganization caused by normlessness
 
Social Disorganization Theory 
Central Business District always has highest crime rate bc immigrants would settle here without being able to form organizations (schools, churches, etc) 
 
Concentric Zone Model
Not much differentfocuses on factors that contribute to disorganized neighborhoodsunemploymentracial/social class concentrationLack formal social control (police)
 
Contemporary social disorganization theory 
in times of rapid social change normlessness(anomie) is not good for society 
 
Strain or Anomie Theory
says everyone can achieve american dream but then societal structure limits that 
 
Cultural contradiction 
Accept both goals and means (Merton)
 
conformity
accept goals but reject means most crime is result of this 
 
innovation
reject goals but accept meansex. janitor-will never get rich but still works hard 
 
ritualism
reject both goals and means ex.outcasts of society
 
retreatism 
Rejects goals and means and substitutes for alternatives could explain some crime 
 
Rebellion 
attempts to explain why the violent crime rate in U.S. is so much higher than in other countries 
 
Institutional anomie theory
idea of american dream such a big part of culture. crime rate is so high because of the emphasis we put on success
 
Explanation for Institutional anomie theory
primacy of economy has weakened other institutions of social control. so focused on the economy puts less focus on churches, schools, family
 
Explanation for Institutional Anomie Theory
Contemporary theory by Robert Agnew
 
General Strain Theory
crime results from negative affective emotional states ex. anger, depression, frustration-these result in negative social relationships which then cause crime
 
General Strain Theory
-failure to achieve goals-disjunction between expectations and achievements-removal of positive stimuli (loss of loved one, family)-presentation of negative stimuli (in abusive relationship, victim of social discrimination) 
 
4 Causes of Strain
Social Disorganization Approach
 
Macro theory
Merton's Theory-normlessness that people feel happens at individual level 
 
micro theory
institutional anomie theory-looks to explain crime rate
 
macro theory
locates root source of crime in cultural patterns of lower class
 
cultural deviance theories 
lower class has created a distinctive culture-opposes the mainstream
 
Miller focal concerns1950's
Trouble Toughnesssmartnessexcitementfateautonomy
 
Focal Concerns
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