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Side ASide B
based upon facial and other physical featuresdates back to 1800thought you could judge character...
based on examination of shape of the skullthought we could determien character and intelligence...
soft and fat
built and muscularmost likely to be criminals
thin and frail
family tree studies, statistical comparison, twin studies, adoption studies
Optimal stimulation theoryto feel normal have to do more extreme for arousal crime is...
5 Levelsphysiological-food and watersafety-feeling securebelongingness-love/relationshipsself-esteem-people...
Maslow: Heirarchy of Needs
Crime occurs with the attempt to fill basic needs or at the top with self actualization
Maslow Heirarchy of Needs
crime is result of individuals adapting to the helplessness caused by oppression.
conformityactivism-change wrongs of societycombo of conformity and activismlegal activismmental...
Halleck says: people don't want to feel helpless so they do this
social oppression (racial/gender discrimination) intimate oppression (two person interactions)
oppressed from withinprojected oppression
3 stages of moral reasoning
til age 10-avoiding punishment is the only reason you follow rules
ages:10-20 believes in following norms of society
incorporate broad principles of morality (helping with euthanasia)
Dominant theory within criminology. -1950'sabout the way society is organized
related to systems of stratification and inequalityRaceGenderClass
root source of crime is structure of society
focuses on the process of becoming a criminalLearn theories-you learn criminal behavior
crime is the result social disorganization (anomie) Crime is the result of political disorganization...
Social Disorganization Theory
Central Business District always has highest crime rate bc immigrants would settle here without...
Concentric Zone Model
Not much differentfocuses on factors that contribute to disorganized neighborhoodsunemploymentracial/social...
Contemporary social disorganization theory
in times of rapid social change normlessness(anomie) is not good for society
Strain or Anomie Theory
says everyone can achieve american dream but then societal structure limits that
Accept both goals and means (Merton)
accept goals but reject means most crime is result of this
reject goals but accept meansex. janitor-will never get rich but still works hard
reject both goals and means ex.outcasts of society
Rejects goals and means and substitutes for alternatives could explain some crime
attempts to explain why the violent crime rate in U.S. is so much higher than in other countries
Institutional anomie theory
idea of american dream such a big part of culture. crime rate is so high because of the emphasis...
Explanation for Institutional anomie theory
primacy of economy has weakened other institutions of social control. so focused on the economy...
Explanation for Institutional Anomie Theory
Contemporary theory by Robert Agnew
General Strain Theory
crime results from negative affective emotional states ex. anger, depression, frustration-these...
General Strain Theory
-failure to achieve goals-disjunction between expectations and achievements-removal of positive...
4 Causes of Strain
Social Disorganization Approach
Merton's Theory-normlessness that people feel happens at individual level
institutional anomie theory-looks to explain crime rate
locates root source of crime in cultural patterns of lower class
cultural deviance theories
lower class has created a distinctive culture-opposes the mainstream
Miller focal concerns1950's