Cosmetology Exam Review 6: Anatomy and Physiology

75 cards

An exam review for cosmetology college class. Info taken from http://glowstick.us and made into a flash card. 


 
  
Created Apr 17, 2009
by
alicia4ever

 

 
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1
The branch of science that studies the structures of the human body that are visible to the...
 
anatomy

Anatomy is also defined as the science of the structure of organisms...
2
The structure that encloses living plant and animal cells is called the:
 
cell membrane

The cell membrane or cell wall also permits soluble substances...
3
All living cells are composed of a substance known as:
 
protoplasm

Protoplasm is a colorless, jellylike substance that the cells of all...
4
The cell structure that contains food materials for cell growth and self-repair is the:
 
cytoplasm

The cytoplasm contains food material necessary for growth, reproduction,...
5
The phase of metabolism in which larger molecules are built from smaller ones is called:
 
anabolism

During anabolism, the body stores water, food, and oxygen for the...
6
Tissues are made up of ________ that perform a specific function.
 
cells

Tissues are a group of cells that perform a specific function.
7
Examples of ________ include the brain and spinal cord.
 
nerve tissue

Nerve tissue is composed of special cells known as neurons, which...
8
The protective covering on body surfaces is a type of tissue called:
 
epithelial tissue

Skin, mucous membranes, and the lining of the heart, digestive...
9
Body structures such as the heart, lungs, kidneys, stomach, and intestines are called:
 
organs

Organs are groups of tissues designed to accomplish a specific function.
10
Organs that make up the circulatory system include:
 
heart and blood vessels

The heart and blood vessels control the circulation of...
11
The physical foundation of the body is the:
 
skeletal system

The skeletal system is the physical foundation or framework...
12
The science that studies bones and their anatomy, structure, and functions is:
 
osteology

Os is the technical term for bone. The word osteology is derived from...
13
The brain is protected by the portion of the skull called the:
 
cranium

The cranium is the oval, bony case that protects the brain.
14
Bones serve many important functions, including:
 
producing red and white blood cells

One of the functions of bone marrow is to...
15
The sides and crown (top) of the cranium are formed by two bones called the:
 
parietal bones

The parietal bones are between the frontal and occipital bones.
16
"Adam's apple" is the common term for the U-shaped bone called the:
 
hyoid

The hyoid is the bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue...
17
The heart, lungs, and other organs are encased in a bony cage called the:
 
thorax

The thorax, or chest, is a bony cage that protects the heart, lungs, and...
18
The bones of the face also known as cheekbones are the:
 
zygomatic bones

The zygomatic bones form the prominence of the cheeks.
19
The bone of the face that is the largest and strongest is the:
 
mandible

The mandible is the lower jawbone; it forms the entire lower jaw.
20
The connection between two or more bones of the skeleton is called a/an:
 
joint

A joint is a connection between bones. It may be movable, such as the elbow,...
21
There are two temporal bones, which form the:
 
sides of the head

The two temporal bones form the sides of the head in the ear...
22
The forearm is made up of two bones, the:
 
ulna and radius

The ulna is the inner and larger bone of the forearm, and the...
23
The fingers of each hand consist of 14 bones called the:
 
phalanges

There are three phalanges in each finger and two in the thumb.
24
The two bones that form the bridge of the nose are the:
 
nasal bones

The two nasal bones form the bridge of the nose.
25
The portion of a muscle that is attached to an immovable section of the skeleton is called...
 
origin

The origin of a muscle is the part that does not move. It is attached...
26
The study of muscles and their structure, functions, and diseases is called:
 
myology

The prefix my- or myo- means muscle.
27
The voluntary muscles that are controlled by the will are called:
 
striated muscles

Striated muscles are also called skeletal or voluntary muscles.
28
The top of the skull is covered by a broad muscle called the:
 
epicranius

The epicranius, or occipito-frontalis, is a broad muscle that covers...
29
The ring muscle of the eye socket that enables you to close your eyes is the:
 
orbicularis oculi

The orbicularis oculi completely surrounds the margin of the...
30
Chewing or mastication are controlled by the:
 
masseter and temporalis muscles

These two muscles coordinate in opening and closing...
31
The swinging movements of the arm are controlled by several muscles, including the:
 
trapezius

The trapezius, latissimus dorsi, and pectoralis major and minor all...
32
The head is lowered and rotated by a muscle of the neck called the:
 
sternocleidomastoideus

The sternocleidomastoideus muscle rotates and lowers the...
33
The fingers are drawn together by muscles called the:
 
adductors

The adductors are muscles at the base of each finger.
34
The part of the nervous system composed of the brain, spinal cord, spinal nerves, and cranial...
 
central nervous system

The central nervous system controls consciousness and...
35
The nerve tissue that is the largest and most complex in the body is the:
 
brain

The brain is the largest and most complex nerve tissue in the body and...
36
Messages are carried from the sense organs to the brain by:
 
sensory nerves

Sensory or afferent nerves carry impulses or messages from the...
37
Impulses are sent away from the cell body to other neurons, glands, or muscles by the:
 
axon

The axon and axon terminal send impulses away from the cell body to other...
38
The external ear and the skin above the temple are affected by the:
 
auriculotemporal nerve

The auriculotemporal nerve affects the skin above the...
39
The nerve affecting the skin at the point and lower side of the nose is the:
 
nasal nerve

The nasal nerve is a branch of the fifth cranial nerve.
40
The chief sensory nerve of the face is the:
 
fifth cranial nerve

The fifth cranial nerve is the largest of the cranial nerves...
41
The scalp and upper eyelids are affected by the:
 
supraorbital nerve

The supraorbital nerve affects the skin of the forehead, scalp,...
42
The motor nerve that, with its branches, controls the muscles of facial expression is the:
 
seventh cranial nerve

The seventh cranial nerve emerges near the lower part of...
43
The muscles of the upper part of the cheek are affected by the:
 
zygomatic nerve

The zygomatic nerveis a branch of the seventh (facial) nerve.
44
The nerve that affects the muscles of the mouth is the:
 
buccal nerve

The buccal nerve is a branch of the seventh cranial nerve.
45
Nerves originating from the spinal cord are called the:
 
cervical nerves

The cervical nerves supply the muscles and scalp at the back...
46
The two cervical nerves located at the side of the neck are the greater auricular nerve and...
 
cervical cutaneous nerve

The cervical cutaneous nerve is one of four branches...
47
One of four principal nerves of the arm and hand that supplies the thumb side of the arm is...
 
radial nerve

The radial nerve supplies the thumb side of the arm and back of...
48
The sensory-motor nerve that, with its branches, supplies the fingers is the:
 
digital nerve

The digital nerve supplies the fingers.
49
The blood is circulated throughout the body by means of the:
 
circulatory system

The circulatory system moves the blood through the body by...
50
The blood vessels that connect the smaller arteries to the veins are the:
 
capillaries

Capillaries are minute, thin-walled blood vessels.
51
The interior of the heart contains the ventricles and the:
 
atria

Atria (plural of atrium) are the thin-walled upper chambers of the heart.
52
The lower heart chambers are called the:
 
ventricles

Ventricles are the lower, thick-walled chambers of the heart.
53
The blood vessels that are thick-walled, muscular, and flexible are the:
 
arteries

Arteries carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the capillaries.
54
The thin-walled blood vessels that carry blood containing waste products are the:
 
veins

Veins carry blood containing waste products from the capillaries back to...
55
The fluid that carries waste and impurities away from cells is:
 
lymph

Lymph is the fluid that circulates in the lymphatics and acts as an aid...
56
The heart is enclosed by a membrane known as the:
 
pericardium

The pericardium is the membrane that encloses the heart.
57
A complex iron protein that gives blood its bright red color is:
 
hemoglobin

Hemoglobin is a complex iron protein found in red blood cells.
58
The salty, sticky, nutritive fluid that circulates through the body is:
 
blood

Blood performs many critical functions in the body.
59
The fluid part of blood that is about 90 percent water is:
 
plasma

Plasma carries food to the cells and takes carbon dioxide away from them.
60
Blood cells that aid in the forming of clots are:
 
platelets

Platelets are much smaller than red blood cells.
61
Cells produced in the red bone marrow that carry oxygen to body cells are called:
 
red blood cells

Red blood cells are produced in the red bone marrow and contain...
62
Blood performs five critical functions, one of them being:
 
carrying nutritive substances to all body cells

Blood carries water, oxygen,...
63
The lymphatic vessels circulate lymph, which is filtered by:
 
lymph nodes

This filtering process helps to fight infection.
64
Blood is supplied to the forehead, internal ear and nose by the:
 
internal carotid artery

The internal and external carotid arteries are located...
65
Blood is supplied to the upper lip and nose region by the artery called the:
 
superior labial artery

The superior labial artery is a branch of the facial artery.
66
The artery that supplies blood to the lower region of the face is the:
 
facial artery

The facial artery is a branch of the external carotid artery.
67
Blood to the temples is supplied by the:
 
middle temporal artery

The middle temporal artery is a branch of the superficial...
68
The internal carotic artery has two branches you should be familiar with, the:
 
supraorbital and infraorbital

Together these arteries supply blood to the upper...
69
The arms and hands are supplied by two main arteries, the:
 
ulnar and radial

These two arteries supply both the little-finger side and the...
70
Duct glands and ductless glands make up the:
 
endocrine system

The endocrine system is made up of specialized glands that...
71
Intestinal glands belong to the group called:
 
duct glands

Duct or exocrine glands produce a substance that travels through...
72
Secretions of the endocrine glands that influence the welfare of the body are:
 
hormones

Hormones stimulate functional activity in other parts of the body.
73
The body system responsible for changing food into nutrients is the:
 
gastrointestinal system

The gastrointestinal system changes food into nutrients...
74
The body system located in the chest cavity and protected by the ribs is the:
 
respiratory system

The respiratory system consists of the lungs and air passages.
75
The skin helps purify the body by eliminating:
 
perspiration

The skin eliminates perspiration, or sweat, through the sweat glands.

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