Cosmetology Exam Review 6: Anatomy And Physiology

An Exam Review For Cosmetology College Class. Info Taken From Http://glowstick. Us And Made Into A Flash Card.  

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The branch of science that studies the structures of the human body that are visible to the naked eye is called:
anatomyAnatomy is also defined as the science of the structure of organisms or of their parts.
The structure that encloses living plant and animal cells is called the:
cell membraneThe cell membrane or cell wall also permits soluble substances to enter and leave the cell.
All living cells are composed of a substance known as:
protoplasmProtoplasm is a colorless, jellylike substance that the cells of all living things are made of.
The cell structure that contains food materials for cell growth and self-repair is the:
cytoplasmThe cytoplasm contains food material necessary for growth, reproduction, and self-repair of the cell.
The phase of metabolism in which larger molecules are built from smaller ones is called:
anabolismDuring anabolism, the body stores water, food, and oxygen for the time when these substances will be needed for cell growth and repair.
Tissues are made up of ________ that perform a specific function.
cellsTissues are a group of cells that perform a specific function.
Examples of ________ include the brain and spinal cord.
nerve tissueNerve tissue is composed of special cells known as neurons, which make up the nerves, brain, and spinal cord.
The protective covering on body surfaces is a type of tissue called:
epithelial tissueSkin, mucous membranes, and the lining of the heart, digestive and respiratory organs, and glands are examples of epithelial tissue.
Body structures such as the heart, lungs, kidneys, stomach, and intestines are called:
organsOrgans are groups of tissues designed to accomplish a specific function.
Organs that make up the circulatory system include:
heart and blood vesselsThe heart and blood vessels control the circulation of the blood through the body.
The physical foundation of the body is the:
skeletal systemThe skeletal system is the physical foundation or framework of the body. It serves as a means of protection, support, and movement.
The science that studies bones and their anatomy, structure, and functions is:
osteologyOs is the technical term for bone. The word osteology is derived from os.
The brain is protected by the portion of the skull called the:
craniumThe cranium is the oval, bony case that protects the brain.
Bones serve many important functions, including:
producing red and white blood cellsOne of the functions of bone marrow is to help produce both white and red blood cells.
The sides and crown (top) of the cranium are formed by two bones called the:
parietal bonesThe parietal bones are between the frontal and occipital bones.
"Adam's apple" is the common term for the U-shaped bone called the:
hyoidThe hyoid is the bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue and its muscles.
The heart, lungs, and other organs are encased in a bony cage called the:
thoraxThe thorax, or chest, is a bony cage that protects the heart, lungs, and other organs.
The bones of the face also known as cheekbones are the:
zygomatic bonesThe zygomatic bones form the prominence of the cheeks.
The bone of the face that is the largest and strongest is the:
mandibleThe mandible is the lower jawbone; it forms the entire lower jaw.
The connection between two or more bones of the skeleton is called a/an:
jointA joint is a connection between bones. It may be movable, such as the elbow, or immovable, such as in the skull.
There are two temporal bones, which form the:
sides of the headThe two temporal bones form the sides of the head in the ear region below the parietal bones.
The forearm is made up of two bones, the:
ulna and radiusThe ulna is the inner and larger bone of the forearm, and the radius is the smaller bone.
The fingers of each hand consist of 14 bones called the:
phalangesThere are three phalanges in each finger and two in the thumb.
The two bones that form the bridge of the nose are the:
nasal bonesThe two nasal bones form the bridge of the nose.
The portion of a muscle that is attached to an immovable section of the skeleton is called the:
originThe origin of a muscle is the part that does not move. It is attached to the skeleton and is usually part of a skeletal muscle.
The study of muscles and their structure, functions, and diseases is called:
myologyThe prefix my- or myo- means muscle.
The voluntary muscles that are controlled by the will are called:
striated musclesStriated muscles are also called skeletal or voluntary muscles.
The top of the skull is covered by a broad muscle called the:
epicraniusThe epicranius, or occipito-frontalis, is a broad muscle that covers the top of the skull.
The ring muscle of the eye socket that enables you to close your eyes is the:
orbicularis oculiThe orbicularis oculi completely surrounds the margin of the eye socket and enables you to close your eyes.
Chewing or mastication are controlled by the:
masseter and temporalis musclesThese two muscles coordinate in opening and closing the mouth.
The swinging movements of the arm are controlled by several muscles, including the:
trapeziusThe trapezius, latissimus dorsi, and pectoralis major and minor all assist the swinging movements of the arm.
The head is lowered and rotated by a muscle of the neck called the:
sternocleidomastoideusThe sternocleidomastoideus muscle rotates and lowers the head.
The fingers are drawn together by muscles called the:
adductorsThe adductors are muscles at the base of each finger.
The part of the nervous system composed of the brain, spinal cord, spinal nerves, and cranial nerves is the:
central nervous systemThe central nervous system controls consciousness and all mental activities, voluntary muscle actions, and voluntary functions of the five senses.
The nerve tissue that is the largest and most complex in the body is the:
brainThe brain is the largest and most complex nerve tissue in the body and is contained in the cranium.
Messages are carried from the sense organs to the brain by:
sensory nervesSensory or afferent nerves carry impulses or messages from the sense organs to the brain.
Impulses are sent away from the cell body to other neurons, glands, or muscles by the:
axonThe axon and axon terminal send impulses away from the cell body to other neurons, glands, or muscles.
The external ear and the skin above the temple are affected by the:
auriculotemporal nerveThe auriculotemporal nerve affects the skin above the temple up to the top of the skull.
The nerve affecting the skin at the point and lower side of the nose is the:
nasal nerveThe nasal nerve is a branch of the fifth cranial nerve.
The chief sensory nerve of the face is the:
fifth cranial nerveThe fifth cranial nerve is the largest of the cranial nerves and serves the muscles that control chewing.
The scalp and upper eyelids are affected by the:
supraorbital nerveThe supraorbital nerve affects the skin of the forehead, scalp, eyebrows and upper eyelids.
The motor nerve that, with its branches, controls the muscles of facial expression is the:
seventh cranial nerveThe seventh cranial nerve emerges near the lower part of the ear and extends to the muscles of the neck.
The muscles of the upper part of the cheek are affected by the:
zygomatic nerveThe zygomatic nerveis a branch of the seventh (facial) nerve.
The nerve that affects the muscles of the mouth is the:
buccal nerveThe buccal nerve is a branch of the seventh cranial nerve.
Nerves originating from the spinal cord are called the:
cervical nervesThe cervical nerves supply the muscles and scalp at the back of the head and neck.
The two cervical nerves located at the side of the neck are the greater auricular nerve and the:
cervical cutaneous nerveThe cervical cutaneous nerve is one of four branches of the cervical nerves.
One of four principal nerves of the arm and hand that supplies the thumb side of the arm is the:
radial nerveThe radial nerve supplies the thumb side of the arm and back of the hand.
The sensory-motor nerve that, with its branches, supplies the fingers is the:
digital nerveThe digital nerve supplies the fingers.
The blood is circulated throughout the body by means of the:
circulatory systemThe circulatory system moves the blood through the body by means of the heart and blood vessels.
The blood vessels that connect the smaller arteries to the veins are the:
capillariesCapillaries are minute, thin-walled blood vessels.
The interior of the heart contains the ventricles and the:
atriaAtria (plural of atrium) are the thin-walled upper chambers of the heart.
The lower heart chambers are called the:
ventriclesVentricles are the lower, thick-walled chambers of the heart.
The blood vessels that are thick-walled, muscular, and flexible are the:
arteriesArteries carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the capillaries.
The thin-walled blood vessels that carry blood containing waste products are the:
veinsVeins carry blood containing waste products from the capillaries back to the heart.
The fluid that carries waste and impurities away from cells is:
lymphLymph is the fluid that circulates in the lymphatics and acts as an aid to the blood system.
The heart is enclosed by a membrane known as the:
pericardiumThe pericardium is the membrane that encloses the heart.
A complex iron protein that gives blood its bright red color is:
hemoglobinHemoglobin is a complex iron protein found in red blood cells.
The salty, sticky, nutritive fluid that circulates through the body is:
bloodBlood performs many critical functions in the body.
The fluid part of blood that is about 90 percent water is:
plasmaPlasma carries food to the cells and takes carbon dioxide away from them.
Blood cells that aid in the forming of clots are:
plateletsPlatelets are much smaller than red blood cells.
Cells produced in the red bone marrow that carry oxygen to body cells are called:
red blood cellsRed blood cells are produced in the red bone marrow and contain hemoglobin.
Blood performs five critical functions, one of them being:
carrying nutritive substances to all body cellsBlood carries water, oxygen, food, and secretions to all cells of the body.
The lymphatic vessels circulate lymph, which is filtered by:
lymph nodesThis filtering process helps to fight infection.
Blood is supplied to the forehead, internal ear and nose by the:
internal carotid arteryThe internal and external carotid arteries are located on either side of the head.
Blood is supplied to the upper lip and nose region by the artery called the:
superior labial arteryThe superior labial artery is a branch of the facial artery.
The artery that supplies blood to the lower region of the face is the:
facial arteryThe facial artery is a branch of the external carotid artery.
Blood to the temples is supplied by the:
middle temporal arteryThe middle temporal artery is a branch of the superficial temporal artery.
The internal carotic artery has two branches you should be familiar with, the:
supraorbital and infraorbitalTogether these arteries supply blood to the upper eyelids, forehead and muscles of the eye.
The arms and hands are supplied by two main arteries, the:
ulnar and radialThese two arteries supply both the little-finger side and the thumb side of the arm and hand.
Duct glands and ductless glands make up the:
endocrine systemThe endocrine system is made up of specialized glands that affect the growth, development, sexual activities, and health of the entire body.
Intestinal glands belong to the group called:
duct glandsDuct or exocrine glands produce a substance that travels through small tube-like ducts.
Secretions of the endocrine glands that influence the welfare of the body are:
hormonesHormones stimulate functional activity in other parts of the body.
The body system responsible for changing food into nutrients is the:
gastrointestinal systemThe gastrointestinal system changes food into nutrients and waste.
The body system located in the chest cavity and protected by the ribs is the:
respiratory systemThe respiratory system consists of the lungs and air passages.
The skin helps purify the body by eliminating:
perspirationThe skin eliminates perspiration, or sweat, through the sweat glands.

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