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The one-celled microorganisms also known as germs or microbes are:
bacteriaBacteria can only be seen with the aid of a microscope and can exist almost anywhere.
Pathogenic bacteria include the:
parasiteParasites are pathogenic, or harmful, organisms that require living matter for their growth.
Bacteria that cause disease are called:
pathogenicPathogenic bacteria are harmful, causing disease.
When they invade plant or animal tissue, pathogenic bacteria cause:
diseasePathogenic bacteria are harmful and cause disease when they invade plant or animal tissue.
The technical term for bacteria that live on dead matter is:
saprophytesSaprophytes are a type of nonpathogenic bacteria.
The type of bacteria that causes syphilis and Lyme disease is:
spirillaSpirilla are spiral or corkscrew-shaped bacteria. The spirilla Treponema pallida causes syphilis, and Borrelia burgdorferi causes Lyme disease.
The type of bacteria called cocci have a:
round shapeCocci are round-shaped bacteria that appear alone or in groups and cause boils, strep throat, pneumonia, and other diseases.
The bacteria called bacilli have a:
rod shapeBacilli, the most common bacteria, are short and rod-shaped.
Pus-forming bacteria that cause strep throat and blood poisoning are:
streptococciStreptococci are round bacteria arranged in curved lines resembling a string of beads.
The classification of bacteria called spirilla have a:
corkscrew shapeSpirilla are spiral or corkscrew-shaped bacteria that cause syphilis, Lyme disease, and other diseases.
In California in 2000, a normally harmless bacteria that caused infections in over 100 pedicure clients was:
Mycobacterium fortuitum furunculosisThis is a rod-shaped bacteria that caused an infection among over 100 clients who had received pedicures in the same salon.
Motility, or self-movement, is rarely seen in the bacteria called:
cocciCocci are transmitted in the air, in dust, or within the substance in which they settle.
Certain bacteria move about with the help of hair like extensions called:
flagellaA whip-like motion of the flagella moves the bacteria in liquid.
During their active stage, bacteria reproduce in a process called:
mitosisWhen conditions are favorable, bacteria divide into two new cells, called daughter cells.
Certain bacteria, during their inactive stage, form outer coverings called:
sporesAs spores, these bacteria can withstand famine, dryness, and unsuitable temperatures and are not harmed by disinfectants, heat, or cold.
A contagious disease is:
transmitted from one person to anotherCommunicable or contagious diseases are spread from one person to another by contact.
A typical example of a general infection is:
syphilisSyphilis is a general infection, which results when the bloodstream carries the bacteria and their toxins to all parts of the body.
Pus in a lesion or wound is an indication of:
infectionPus contains white blood cells and the debris of dead cells, tissue elements, and bacteria.
Diseases caused by viruses include:
measles and hepatitisViruses also cause common colds and other respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.
Viruses and bacteria behave differently, one difference being that bacteria:
can live on their ownThis is one reason bacteria can usually be treated with antibiotics, while viruses are hard to kill without harming the body in the process.
Hepatitis is caused by a bloodborne virus and involves inflammation of the:
liverHepatitis is more easily contracted than HIV/AIDS, as it is present in all body fluids.
AIDS, the disease caused by the HIV virus, breaks down the body's:
immune systemAIDS attacks the immune system, which is the body's defense against infection and disease.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is caused by:
the HIV virusHIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is the virus that causes AIDS.
One way in which the HIV virus can be transmitted is by:
sharp implementsIn the salon, accidents with sharp implements is a way the HIV virus can be transmitted.
One way in which bacteria and viruses can enter the body is through:
broken skinA break in the skin, such as a cut, pimple, or scratch, allows bacteria into the body.
Another term for vegetable parasites such as molds, mildews, and yeasts is:
fungiFungi can produce contagious diseases, such as ringworm and favus.
Clients showing signs of a contagious disease or condition should be:
referred to a physicianContagious diseases and conditions should never be treated in a school or salon, and clients should be referred to a physician.
The ability of the body to resist infection in general is called:
immunityImmunity is the ability of the body to destroy bacteria that have gained entrance and thus to resist infection.
Surfaces such as tables, walls, doorknobs, or your hands, no matter how clean they look, are very likely:
contaminatedSomething is contaminated when it is covered with dirt, oils, or microbes, which are called contaminants.
Pathogens and other substances are removed from tools or surfaces in a process called:
decontaminationDecontamination involves using physical or chemical means to remove, inactivate, or destroy pathogens so that the object is safe for handling, use, or disposal.
Only one level of decontamination, sterilization, is capable of killing:
bacterial sporesBacterial spores are the most resistant form of life on Earth.
Sterilization is a process that must be practiced by:
surgeonsSurgeons and dentists must sterilize their tools, which are designed to break and penetrate the skin barrier.
Disinfection may be used on:
nonporous surfacesDisinfection controls microorganisms on nonporous surfaces such as cuticle nippers and other implements.
The skin, hair, and nails should never be cleaned with disinfectants because:
damage can resultDisinfectants, which are powerful enough to quickly and efficiently destroy pathogens, can also damage skin, hair, and nails.
Each individual state and the ________ must approve all disinfectants.
EPAEvery disinfectant's label must have an EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) registration number.
There should be available, for every product used in the cosmetology school or salon, a/an:
MSDSMaterial Safety Data Sheets provide all pertinent information on products, such as content, hazards, combustion levels, and storage requirements.
An MSDS contains important information about a product, including:
storage requirementsAn MSDS includes information on content, hazards, combustion levels, and storage requirements. Products must be properly stored to remain safe and effective.
The government created the agency called OSHA to regulate and enforce:
safety and health standardsOSHA was created as part of the U.S. Department of Labor to regulate and enforce safety and health standards in the workplace.
In order to be considered "Formulated for Hospitals and Health Care Facilities," a disinfectant must be pseudomonacidal, bactericidal, fungicidal, and:
VirucidalVirucidal means capable of destroying or inactivating viruses.
OSHA's policy for bloodborne pathogens requires the use of an EPA-registered tuberculocidal disinfectant or one that kills the:
HBV and HIV virusOSHA stated in 1997, in order to comply with its Bloodborne Pathogens Standard, that this practice was required.
Any item used to perform a salon service on a client must be disinfected or:
discardedItems such as orangewood sticks must be discarded. Combs, brushes, shears, cuticle nippers, tweezers, and other tools must be disinfected.
Implements must be thoroughly ________ before they are immersed in disinfectant.
cleanedImplements must be cleaned first to avoid contaminating the disinfecting solution.
To be effective in the salon, ultrasonic bath cleaners must be used with:
an effective disinfectantWithout an effective disinfectant, these devices will only sanitize implements.
Disinfecting implements in quaternary ammonium compounds takes:
10-15 minutesBe sure not to leave implements in quats for longer than 10-15 minutes; some tools are damaged by long-term exposure.
Phenols in 5 percent solution are safe and extremely effective disinfectants used mostly for:
metal implementsPhenols are safe and very effective for metal implements if used according to instructions.
Today's salon disinfectants, have largely replaced:
alcohol and bleachNeither bleach nor alcohols are professionally designed and tested for disinfection of salon implements.
For disinfection of implements, states requiring hospital disinfection do not allow the use of:
alcoholAlcohol is not an EPA-registered disinfectant.
Bleach is also called:
sodium hypochloriteThis is the chemical name for bleach.
A product that was used in the past as a disinfectant but is no longer considered safe for salon use is:
formalinFormalin, a solution of formaldehyde in water, was used in the past as a disinfectant and fumigant in dry cabinet sanitizers.
It is proper procedure to remove implements from disinfectants with any of the following except:
bare fingersDisinfectants should never be handled with bare fingers or hands.
Proper disinfection procedure includes changing the solution in a wet sanitizer:
once a dayThe disinfecting solution must be changed daily unless otherwise directed by the manufacturer's instructions.
An important rule to follow when using disinfectants is to:
add disinfectant to waterMix disinfectant according to the manufacturer's directions, but always adding disinfectant to water.
Once implements have been disinfected, they should be stored in a/an:
disinfected and covered containerDisinfected implements are best stored in a disinfected, dry, and covered container.
The devices known as ultraviolet (UV) sanitizers can be used for:
storing disinfected implementsUV sanitizers should not be used to disinfect, but they can be used as storage containers.
After each use, linens and capes or drapes that come in contact with a client's skin should be laundered with:
bleachBleach is very useful as a laundry additive for salon linens and capes.
The contact points of tools that cannot be immersed in liquid, such as hair clippers and nail drills:
should be disinfectedThese parts can be wiped or sprayed with an EPA-registered, hospital-grade, tuberculocidal disinfectant created especially for electrical equipment.
An EPA-registered disinfectant with bactericidal, fungicidal, virucidal (and in some states tuberculocidal) efficacy should be used to disinfect foot spas:
after each clientProper disinfection procedures must be followed with foot spas to prevent the spread of bacterial or parasitic disease.
Foot spas should be filled with ________ and left to sit overnight every two weeks.
a 5 percent bleach solutionA 5 percent bleach solution is a dose of 50 parts per thousand.
Cotton balls or wipes used in cleaning up a blood spill should be:
double-bagged before disposingThe contaminated objects should be double-bagged, then tagged with a biohazard sticker or placed in a container for contaminated waste.
There are three levels of decontamination, the lowest of which is:
sanitationTo sanitize means "to significantly reduce the number of pathogens or disease-producing organisms found on a surface."
Washing a brush with detergent is an example of:
sanitationThis is one of many steps of sanitation in the salon.
Bar soaps can grow bacteria, so it is better practice to provide:
pump-type liquid soapYou are protecting both your staff and your clients with this kind of soap.
In the salon, hands should be thoroughly washed before and after each service with:
soap and warm waterSoap and warm water are generally sufficient for hand-washing in the salon.
Antiseptics, another product used in the salon:
can safely be applied to skinAntiseptics are safe to apply to the skin, and are usually used prior to a manicure or pedicure.
The guidelines and controls for infection control published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are called:
Universal PrecautionsThese precautions include hand-washing, gloving, the use of personal protective equipment, and proper handling of items contaminated by blood or other body...