Side ASide B
When you rearrange the basic structure of very curly hair into a straight form, you are performing:
chemical hair relaxingWhereas permanent waving curls straight hair, chemical hair relaxing straightens curly hair.
Except for their objectives, a chemical relaxing service is very similar to:
permanent wavingThe chemistry of thio relaxers and permanent waving is exactly the same.
All permanents and all relaxers--both thio and hydroxide--rearrange the basic structure of the hair by:
breaking disulfide bondsPermanents break the disulfide bonds of straight hair; relaxers break the disulfide bonds of curly hair.
The ingredients found in most relaxers are the same as those in:
depilatoriesLike depilatories, relaxers are very alkaline and can melt or dissolve hair if used incorrectly.
A characteristic of extremely curly hair is that it:
has varying diametersThe hair is irregular; cross-sections vary in shape and thickness along their lengths.
The weakest, thinnest sections of extremely curly hair are the:
twistsExtremely curly hair usually breaks at the twists because of the inherent weakness in that section.
The type of chemical relaxers known as thio relaxers:
have a pH above 10Thio relaxers also have a higher concentration of ATG than is used in permanent waving.
On the pH scale, a ________ difference in concentration is represented by every step.
tenfoldA pH of 6.0 is ten times more alkaline than a pH of 5.0.
Methods of altering the natural wave pattern of the hair by a chemical change are called:
chemical texture servicesTexture services can be used to curl straight hair, straighten overly curly hair, or soften coarse, straight hair.
When the hair has a strong, compact cuticle, it is generally:
resistant hairHair with a strong, compact cuticle resists penetration and is difficult to service.
In order to perm porous, damaged, or chemically treated hair, you should use a solution that is:
less alkalineThis type of hair has a raised cuticle and does not need a highly alkaline solution to penetrate to the cortex.
The hair's natural wave pattern can be changed by breaking the:
side bondsBreaking the three kinds of side bonds, or cross bonds, is what makes permanent waving, wet setting, thermal styling, soft curl permanents, and chemical hair relaxing...
Disulfide bonds are chemical side bonds that, of the three types of side bonds, are the:
strongestDisulfide are strong chemical side bonds that are not broken by heat or water.
The condition that can break salt bonds easily is:
changes in pHSalt bonds re-form when the pH returns to normal.
One type of physical change in the hair is a:
wet setThe hydrogen bonds in the hair break and re-form in a new shape, but this change is only temporary.
About ________ of the hair's total strength comes from hydrogen bonds.
1/3Although individual hydrogen bonds are very weak, there are so many of them they make up 1/3 of the hair's total strength.
If you keep accurate, detailed records and update them regularly, you will:
improve your technical skillsBy keeping track of the procedures and products you use in each service and their effectiveness, you will improve your technical skills.
When you analyze the hair for chemical texture services, you must consider texture, density, porosity, elasticity, and:
growth directionWhorls, hair streams, and cowlicks must be considered when you select the base direction and wrapping pattern.
Hair texture is classified as:
coarse, medium, and fineHair texture describes the diameter of individual strands of hair.
When applying chemical texture services to coarse hair, keep in mind that it is generally:
harder to penetrateCoarse hair usually requires more processing than medium or fine hair because it is more difficult for perm solutions to penetrate.
In terms of chemical texture services, the most fragile hair texture is:
fine hairFine hair is more fragile, easier to process, and more susceptible to damage from perm services than coarse or medium hair.
The hair's ability to hold a curl is determined most importantly by its:
elasticityHair with normal elasticity usually holds the curl; hair with low elasticity may not be able to.
If wet hair can stretch up to ________ percent of its original length, then return to that length without breaking, it has normal elasticity.
50Hair with normal elasticity usually holds the curl from wet sets and permanent waves.
Wrapping the hair on perm rods during the first part of a perm causes a/an:
physical changeWetting the hair with water breaks the hydrogen bonds and allows the hair to be wrapped in the desired shape.
Applying waving solution and neutralizer to the hair during a perm causes a:
chemical changeWaving solution raises the cuticle, penetrates into the cortex, and breaks the disulfide bonds; neutralizer rebuilds the bonds.
A wet set and a perm have one major difference, which is the:
type of side bonds brokenA wet set breaks hydrogen bonds; a permanent wave breaks disulfide bonds.
The factor that is determined by the size of the perm tool is the:
size of the curlSmall tools produce small curls, and large tools produce large curls.
In a permanent wave, wrapping the hair on small tools increases the:
tensionThe greater the tension, the greater the amount of curl.
When you prepare the hair for perm wrapping, you first section it into panels, then into:
base sectionsOne perm tool is normally placed on each base section.
Where the perm tool sits relative to its base section is called its:
base controlTools can be wrapped on base, half off base, or off base.
Base control is the position of the tool relative to its base section and is determined by the angle:
at which the hair is wrappedThe hair can be wrapped perpendicular, 45 degrees above perpendicular, or 45 degrees below perpendicular to the base section.
The base control in which the hair is wrapped 45 degrees above perpendicular to the base section is called:
on-base placementThe tool is positioned on its base section.
The hair is wrapped ________ to its base section in off-base placement.
45 degrees below perpendicularThe tool is positioned completely off its base section.
Additional stress and tension are placed on the hair when ________ is used.
on-base placementThis base control should be used with caution as it may damage or break the hair.
The least amount of volume in perm wrapping is created when you use:
off-base placementIt also results in a curl pattern that begins farthest away from the scalp.
The perm tool is positioned on the head at an angle called its:
base directionBase direction can be horizontal, vertical, or diagonal.
When you wrap the hair from the ends to the scalp in overlapping layers, you are using:
croquignole wrappingThe hair is wrapped at an angle perpendicular to the length of the tool, so each new layer is wrapped on top of the previous layer.
The hair is wrapped ________ in the spiral perm wrapping technique.
at an angle other than perpendicularThe angle at which the hair is wrapped causes the hair to spiral along the length of the tool.
Perm rods that have a smaller circumference in the center that increases to a larger circumference at the ends are:
concave rodsConcave rods produce a tighter curl in the center and a looser, larger curl on either side of the strand.
Perm rods that have a uniform circumference are called:
straight rodsStraight rods produce a uniform curl along the entire width of the strand.
Soft bender rods can be:
bent into many shapesThese rods are made of soft foam with a stiff wire inside that allows them to be bent into almost any shape.
The extra length of the circle tool makes it ideal for:
spiral wrapping very long hairThe circle tool is usually about 12 inches long, which makes it ideal for this job.
When you wind the hair on perm tools, use end papers to:
control the hair endsEnd papers keep the ends smooth and straight and prevent "fishhooks."
The end paper technique that involves one paper held over the top of the hair strand is called the:
single flat wrapThis wrap is similar to the double flat wrap but uses only one paper.
The end paper technique that involves one paper folded in half over the hair ends like an envelope is called the:
bookend wrapThe bookend wrap eliminates excess paper and can be used with short rods or very short hair.
To achieve the most control over the hair ends and keep them evenly distributed as you wrap them, use a:
double flat wrapA double flat wrap uses two end papers, one under and one over the strand of hair.
The disulfide bonds in the cortex are broken by perm solution in the process called:
reductionA reduction reaction involves either the addition of hydrogen or the removal of oxygen; in this case it is the addition of hydrogen.
Thiol compounds are used in permanent waving solutions as:
reducing agentsThioglycolic acid is the most common of these compounds; it supplies the hydrogen that causes the reduction reaction in perm solutions.
The addition of ________ to thioglycolic acid produces a new chemical called ammonium thioglycolate.
ammoniaAmmonium thioglycolate is the main active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanents.
Another name for alkaline waves is:
cold wavesSince alkaline waves process at room temperature without the addition of heat, they are commonly called cold waves.
One characteristic of most true acid waves is that they:
require heat to speed processingTrue acid waves may require the added heat of a hair dryer.
Acid-balanced waves have a pH between:
7.8 and 8.2Because of their higher pH, these waves process at room temperature and produce firmer curls than true acid waves.
Permanent waves that are activated by an outside heat source are:
endothermicEndothermic waves will not process properly at room temperature.
Ammonia-free permanent waves have one advantage over ammonia solutions, which is that they:
have no unpleasant ammonia odorThere is very little odor associated with ammonia-free waves, which use alkanolamines instead of ammonia.
Most of the processing in permanent waving occurs as soon as the solution penetrates the hair, within the first:
5 to 10 minutesThe additional processing time allows the polypeptide chains to shift into their new configuration.
All permanent waves require complete saturation of perm solution, but it is even more essential for:
resistant hairRegardless of the strength or pH of the solution, it may take more than one application with waving solution to thoroughly saturate resistant hair.
Approximately ________ percent of the hair's disulfide bonds should be broken and rebuilt in a properly processed permanent wave.
50If too many disulfide bonds are broken, the hair may not be strong enough to hold the desired curl.
In underprocessed hair:
too few disulfide bonds are brokenIf not enough disulfide bonds have been broken, the hair is not sufficiently softened and cannot hold the desired curl.
The two important functions of neutralizer are deactivating any remaining waving solution in the hair and:
rebuilding broken disulfide bondsThe disulfide bonds broken during processing are rebuilt in their new curled position by neutralizer.
The process of neutralizing is a chemical reaction called:
oxidationThe neutralizers used in permanent waving are oxidizers, which deactivate any waving lotion remaining in the hair after processing and rinsing.
You should rinse perm solution from the hair for at least:
five minutesIt is important to get as much perm solution out of the hair as possible to avoid scalp irritation and unwanted lightening of the hair color.
Before applying neutralizer, you should rinse perm solution from the hair to avoid scalp irritation and:
lightening the hair colorBecause neutralization is an oxidation reaction, it can lighten hair color, especially at an alkaline pH.
After processing, you should rinse perm solution from the hair and then:
blot the rods with towelsBlot each rod several times with dry towels, because excess water left in the hair prevents even saturation and dilutes the neutralizer.
To strengthen the hair after towel blotting and before neutralizing, an optional step is to:
apply a pre-neutralizing conditionerAn acidic liquid protein conditioner can be applied to the hair and dried under a warm dryer for five minutes before neutralizing.
Broken disulfide bonds are rebuilt when their hydrogen atoms, attracted to the oxygen in the neutralizer, release their bond with the:
sulfur atomsEach oxygen atom joins with two hydrogen atoms to rebuild one disulfide bond and make one molecule of water.
Unless you see signs of scalp irritation, you may color freshly permed hair with:
demipermanent haircolorModern demipermanent, deposit-only haircolors are safe to use on freshly permed hair.
You may safely apply permanent waving lotion to hair that:
has been treated with thio relaxerA soft curl permanent is a combination of a thio relaxer and a thio permanent.
Haircoloring products containing metallic salts are not compatible with permanent waving and may cause:
uneven curlsThey may also cause severe discoloration or hair breakage.
If you suspect there are metallic salts in a client's hair, soak at least 20 strands in a mixture of peroxide and:
ammoniaIf metallic salts are present, the hair will lighten rapidly, and the solution may get hot and give off an unpleasant odor.
Another term for the basic perm wrap is:
straight set wrapIn this wrapping pattern, all the tools within a panel move in the same direction, and all base sections are horizontal.
A movement that curves within sectioned-out panels is characteristic of a:
curvature perm wrapPartings and bases radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature of the head.
The perm wrapping technique that uses zigzag partings to divide base areas is known as the:
weave techniqueThis technique is effective for blending between perm rods with opposite base directions and for creating a smooth transition from rolled to unrolled areas of...
Another name for the double tool perm technique is:
piggyback wrapThis technique is called the piggyback wrap because two tools are used for one strand of hair, one on top of the other.
The spiral perm technique, in which the hair spirals along the length of the tool,:
produces a uniform curl from scalp to endsThe effective size of the tool remains constant along the entire strand of hair, which produces a uniform curl.
The correct processing time for optimal curl development can be determined by doing:
preliminary test curlsPreliminary test curls will also tell you results you can expect from the perm solution and curl results for the tool size and wrapping technique you...
A smooth transition from a rolled to an unrolled section of a partial perm can be achieved by using a ________ as the last tool next to an unrolled section.
larger toolA larger tool creates a larger, looser curl, so the transition to straighter, unrolled hair will be less noticeable.
The process in which one atom of sulfur is removed from a disulfide bond and converted into a lanthionine bond is called:
lanthionizationDisulfide bonds contain two sulfur atoms, and lanthionine bonds contain only one.
Once a hydroxide relaxer breaks disulfide bonds, those bonds:
can never be re-formedThese bonds are permanently broken and converted into lanthionine bonds.
To neutralize a hydroxide relaxer, you should use a/an:
acid-balanced shampooThe neutralization of hydroxide relaxers involves lowering the pH of the hair and scalp with an acid-balanced shampoo or a normalizing lotion.
Hair that has been treated with hydroxide relaxers is unfit for:
soft curl permanentsA thio relaxer or soft curl permanent applied to hair that has been treated with a hydroxide relaxer will not properly relax or curl the hair and may damage...
Ionic compounds formed by a metal combined with ________ are called metal hydroxide relaxers.
oxygen and hydrogenMetal hydroxide relaxers include sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and lithium hydroxide.
Another term for sodium hydroxide relaxers is:
lye relaxersSodium hydroxide is also known as lye or caustic soda.
A relaxer that causes less scalp irritation than other hydroxide relaxers but still straightens the hair completely is:
guanidine hydroxide relaxerGuanidine hydroxide relaxers are marketed as "no-lye" relaxers.
Mild alternative relaxers is the marketing term for:
sulfitesSulfites are low-pH relaxers that are less damaging to the hair, although they do not relax extremely curly hair sufficiently.
Fine, damaged, or ________ hair should be relaxed with mild strength relaxers.
color-treated hairA lower concentration of hydroxide makes a gentler relaxer for these hair types and conditions.
When doing a virgin relaxer application, always begin:
1/4" to 1/2" away from the scalpBegin 1/4" to 1/2" away from the scalp and include the entire strand up to the porous ends.
The most resistant area of the hair, where relaxer should be applied first, is usually in the:
back of the headOn most clients this is the most resistant area.
In a relaxing procedure, normalizing solutions that restore the hair's natural pH are used:
prior to shampooingSome manufacturers recommend using a normalizing solution after rinsing out the relaxer and before shampooing.
A procedure that will help you determine if the client's hair is sufficiently relaxed is:
periodic strand testingStrand tests are taken periodically after the relaxer has been applied and smoothed on the hair, until the test strand remains smooth.
After applying a normalizing solution to relaxed hair, you should shampoo the hair with an acid-balanced shampoo a minimum of:
three timesIt is essential that all the relaxer is removed from the hair.
A soft curl permanent consists of two services and:
makes existing curls largerSoft curl permanents, or Jheri curls, do not straighten the hair but make the existing curl larger and looser.
A soft curl permanent is actually two services, a thio relaxer and:
a thio permanentExtremely curly hair is first relaxed with a thio relaxer, then wrapped on large tools and permed.
In the second part of a soft curl permanent, the relaxed hair is wrapped:
on horizontal base sectionsAll base sections should be horizontal, with the same length and width as the perm tool.
When performing a hydroxide relaxer procedure:
do not shampoo firstTo avoid scalp irritation, do not shampoo the hair prior to application of a hydroxide relaxer.
No more than ________ of the natural curl should be removed with chemical relaxer.
80%To go beyond 80% will likely damage the hair.