Cosmetology Exam Review 15: Chemical Texture Services

An Exam Review For Cosmetology College Class. Info Taken From Http://glowstick.us And Made Into A Flash Card.  
 
Created Apr 26, 2009
by alicia4ever
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Side ASide B
When you rearrange the basic structure of very curly hair into a straight form, you are performing:
chemical hair relaxingWhereas permanent waving curls straight hair, chemical hair relaxing...
Except for their objectives, a chemical relaxing service is very similar to:
permanent wavingThe chemistry of thio relaxers and permanent waving is exactly the same.
All permanents and all relaxers--both thio and hydroxide--rearrange the basic structure of...
breaking disulfide bondsPermanents break the disulfide bonds of straight hair; relaxers...
The ingredients found in most relaxers are the same as those in:
depilatoriesLike depilatories, relaxers are very alkaline and can melt or dissolve hair...
A characteristic of extremely curly hair is that it:
has varying diametersThe hair is irregular; cross-sections vary in shape and thickness...
The weakest, thinnest sections of extremely curly hair are the:
twistsExtremely curly hair usually breaks at the twists because of the inherent weakness...
The type of chemical relaxers known as thio relaxers:
have a pH above 10Thio relaxers also have a higher concentration of ATG than is used...
On the pH scale, a ________ difference in concentration is represented by every step.
tenfoldA pH of 6.0 is ten times more alkaline than a pH of 5.0.
Methods of altering the natural wave pattern of the hair by a chemical change are called:
chemical texture servicesTexture services can be used to curl straight hair, straighten...
When the hair has a strong, compact cuticle, it is generally:
resistant hairHair with a strong, compact cuticle resists penetration and is difficult...
In order to perm porous, damaged, or chemically treated hair, you should use a solution that...
less alkalineThis type of hair has a raised cuticle and does not need a highly alkaline...
The hair's natural wave pattern can be changed by breaking the:
side bondsBreaking the three kinds of side bonds, or cross bonds, is what makes permanent...
Disulfide bonds are chemical side bonds that, of the three types of side bonds, are the:
strongestDisulfide are strong chemical side bonds that are not broken by heat or water.
The condition that can break salt bonds easily is:
changes in pHSalt bonds re-form when the pH returns to normal.
One type of physical change in the hair is a:
wet setThe hydrogen bonds in the hair break and re-form in a new shape, but this change...
About ________ of the hair's total strength comes from hydrogen bonds.
1/3Although individual hydrogen bonds are very weak, there are so many of them they...
If you keep accurate, detailed records and update them regularly, you will:
improve your technical skillsBy keeping track of the procedures and products you use...
When you analyze the hair for chemical texture services, you must consider texture, density,...
growth directionWhorls, hair streams, and cowlicks must be considered when you select...
Hair texture is classified as:
coarse, medium, and fineHair texture describes the diameter of individual strands of...
When applying chemical texture services to coarse hair, keep in mind that it is generally:
harder to penetrateCoarse hair usually requires more processing than medium or fine...
In terms of chemical texture services, the most fragile hair texture is:
fine hairFine hair is more fragile, easier to process, and more susceptible to damage...
The hair's ability to hold a curl is determined most importantly by its:
elasticityHair with normal elasticity usually holds the curl; hair with low elasticity...
If wet hair can stretch up to ________ percent of its original length, then return to that...
50Hair with normal elasticity usually holds the curl from wet sets and permanent waves.
Wrapping the hair on perm rods during the first part of a perm causes a/an:
physical changeWetting the hair with water breaks the hydrogen bonds and allows the...
Applying waving solution and neutralizer to the hair during a perm causes a:
chemical changeWaving solution raises the cuticle, penetrates into the cortex, and breaks...
A wet set and a perm have one major difference, which is the:
type of side bonds brokenA wet set breaks hydrogen bonds; a permanent wave breaks disulfide...
The factor that is determined by the size of the perm tool is the:
size of the curlSmall tools produce small curls, and large tools produce large curls.
In a permanent wave, wrapping the hair on small tools increases the:
tensionThe greater the tension, the greater the amount of curl.
When you prepare the hair for perm wrapping, you first section it into panels, then into:
base sectionsOne perm tool is normally placed on each base section.
Where the perm tool sits relative to its base section is called its:
base controlTools can be wrapped on base, half off base, or off base.
Base control is the position of the tool relative to its base section and is determined by...
at which the hair is wrappedThe hair can be wrapped perpendicular, 45 degrees above...
The base control in which the hair is wrapped 45 degrees above perpendicular to the base section...
on-base placementThe tool is positioned on its base section.
The hair is wrapped ________ to its base section in off-base placement.
45 degrees below perpendicularThe tool is positioned completely off its base section.
Additional stress and tension are placed on the hair when ________ is used.
on-base placementThis base control should be used with caution as it may damage or break...
The least amount of volume in perm wrapping is created when you use:
off-base placementIt also results in a curl pattern that begins farthest away from the...
The perm tool is positioned on the head at an angle called its:
base directionBase direction can be horizontal, vertical, or diagonal.
When you wrap the hair from the ends to the scalp in overlapping layers, you are using:
croquignole wrappingThe hair is wrapped at an angle perpendicular to the length of...
The hair is wrapped ________ in the spiral perm wrapping technique.
at an angle other than perpendicularThe angle at which the hair is wrapped causes the...
Perm rods that have a smaller circumference in the center that increases to a larger circumference...
concave rodsConcave rods produce a tighter curl in the center and a looser, larger curl...
Perm rods that have a uniform circumference are called:
straight rodsStraight rods produce a uniform curl along the entire width of the strand.
Soft bender rods can be:
bent into many shapesThese rods are made of soft foam with a stiff wire inside that...
The extra length of the circle tool makes it ideal for:
spiral wrapping very long hairThe circle tool is usually about 12 inches long, which...
When you wind the hair on perm tools, use end papers to:
control the hair endsEnd papers keep the ends smooth and straight and prevent "fishhooks."
The end paper technique that involves one paper held over the top of the hair strand is called...
single flat wrapThis wrap is similar to the double flat wrap but uses only one paper.
The end paper technique that involves one paper folded in half over the hair ends like an envelope...
bookend wrapThe bookend wrap eliminates excess paper and can be used with short rods...
To achieve the most control over the hair ends and keep them evenly distributed as you wrap...
double flat wrapA double flat wrap uses two end papers, one under and one over the strand...
The disulfide bonds in the cortex are broken by perm solution in the process called:
reductionA reduction reaction involves either the addition of hydrogen or the removal...
Thiol compounds are used in permanent waving solutions as:
reducing agentsThioglycolic acid is the most common of these compounds; it supplies...
The addition of ________ to thioglycolic acid produces a new chemical called ammonium thioglycolate.
ammoniaAmmonium thioglycolate is the main active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline...
Another name for alkaline waves is:
cold wavesSince alkaline waves process at room temperature without the addition of heat,...
One characteristic of most true acid waves is that they:
require heat to speed processingTrue acid waves may require the added heat of a hair...
Acid-balanced waves have a pH between:
7.8 and 8.2Because of their higher pH, these waves process at room temperature and produce...
Permanent waves that are activated by an outside heat source are:
endothermicEndothermic waves will not process properly at room temperature.
Ammonia-free permanent waves have one advantage over ammonia solutions, which is that they:
have no unpleasant ammonia odorThere is very little odor associated with ammonia-free...
Most of the processing in permanent waving occurs as soon as the solution penetrates the hair,...
5 to 10 minutesThe additional processing time allows the polypeptide chains to shift...
All permanent waves require complete saturation of perm solution, but it is even more essential...
resistant hairRegardless of the strength or pH of the solution, it may take more than...
Approximately ________ percent of the hair's disulfide bonds should be broken and rebuilt...
50If too many disulfide bonds are broken, the hair may not be strong enough to hold...
In underprocessed hair:
too few disulfide bonds are brokenIf not enough disulfide bonds have been broken, the...
The two important functions of neutralizer are deactivating any remaining waving solution in...
rebuilding broken disulfide bondsThe disulfide bonds broken during processing are rebuilt...
The process of neutralizing is a chemical reaction called:
oxidationThe neutralizers used in permanent waving are oxidizers, which deactivate...
You should rinse perm solution from the hair for at least:
five minutesIt is important to get as much perm solution out of the hair as possible...
Before applying neutralizer, you should rinse perm solution from the hair to avoid scalp irritation...
lightening the hair colorBecause neutralization is an oxidation reaction, it can lighten...
After processing, you should rinse perm solution from the hair and then:
blot the rods with towelsBlot each rod several times with dry towels, because excess...
To strengthen the hair after towel blotting and before neutralizing, an optional step is to:
apply a pre-neutralizing conditionerAn acidic liquid protein conditioner can be applied...
Broken disulfide bonds are rebuilt when their hydrogen atoms, attracted to the oxygen in the...
sulfur atomsEach oxygen atom joins with two hydrogen atoms to rebuild one disulfide...
Unless you see signs of scalp irritation, you may color freshly permed hair with:
demipermanent haircolorModern demipermanent, deposit-only haircolors are safe to use...
You may safely apply permanent waving lotion to hair that:
has been treated with thio relaxerA soft curl permanent is a combination of a thio relaxer...
Haircoloring products containing metallic salts are not compatible with permanent waving and...
uneven curlsThey may also cause severe discoloration or hair breakage.
If you suspect there are metallic salts in a client's hair, soak at least 20 strands in a mixture...
ammoniaIf metallic salts are present, the hair will lighten rapidly, and the solution...
Another term for the basic perm wrap is:
straight set wrapIn this wrapping pattern, all the tools within a panel move in the...
A movement that curves within sectioned-out panels is characteristic of a:
curvature perm wrapPartings and bases radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature...
The perm wrapping technique that uses zigzag partings to divide base areas is known as the:
weave techniqueThis technique is effective for blending between perm rods with opposite...
Another name for the double tool perm technique is:
piggyback wrapThis technique is called the piggyback wrap because two tools are used...
The spiral perm technique, in which the hair spirals along the length of the tool,:
produces a uniform curl from scalp to endsThe effective size of the tool remains constant...
The correct processing time for optimal curl development can be determined by doing:
preliminary test curlsPreliminary test curls will also tell you results you can expect...
A smooth transition from a rolled to an unrolled section of a partial perm can be achieved by...
larger toolA larger tool creates a larger, looser curl, so the transition to straighter,...
The process in which one atom of sulfur is removed from a disulfide bond and converted into...
lanthionizationDisulfide bonds contain two sulfur atoms, and lanthionine bonds contain...
Once a hydroxide relaxer breaks disulfide bonds, those bonds:
can never be re-formedThese bonds are permanently broken and converted into lanthionine...
To neutralize a hydroxide relaxer, you should use a/an:
acid-balanced shampooThe neutralization of hydroxide relaxers involves lowering the...
Hair that has been treated with hydroxide relaxers is unfit for:
soft curl permanentsA thio relaxer or soft curl permanent applied to hair that has...
Ionic compounds formed by a metal combined with ________ are called metal hydroxide relaxers.
oxygen and hydrogenMetal hydroxide relaxers include sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide,...
Another term for sodium hydroxide relaxers is:
lye relaxersSodium hydroxide is also known as lye or caustic soda.
A relaxer that causes less scalp irritation than other hydroxide relaxers but still straightens...
guanidine hydroxide relaxerGuanidine hydroxide relaxers are marketed as "no-lye" relaxers.
Mild alternative relaxers is the marketing term for:
sulfitesSulfites are low-pH relaxers that are less damaging to the hair, although they...
Fine, damaged, or ________ hair should be relaxed with mild strength relaxers.
color-treated hairA lower concentration of hydroxide makes a gentler relaxer for these...
When doing a virgin relaxer application, always begin:
1/4" to 1/2" away from the scalpBegin 1/4" to 1/2" away from the scalp and include the...
The most resistant area of the hair, where relaxer should be applied first, is usually in the:
back of the headOn most clients this is the most resistant area.
In a relaxing procedure, normalizing solutions that restore the hair's natural pH are used:
prior to shampooingSome manufacturers recommend using a normalizing solution after rinsing...
A procedure that will help you determine if the client's hair is sufficiently relaxed is:
periodic strand testingStrand tests are taken periodically after the relaxer has been...
After applying a normalizing solution to relaxed hair, you should shampoo the hair with an...
three timesIt is essential that all the relaxer is removed from the hair.
A soft curl permanent consists of two services and:
makes existing curls largerSoft curl permanents, or Jheri curls, do not straighten the...
A soft curl permanent is actually two services, a thio relaxer and:
a thio permanentExtremely curly hair is first relaxed with a thio relaxer, then wrapped...
In the second part of a soft curl permanent, the relaxed hair is wrapped:
on horizontal base sectionsAll base sections should be horizontal, with the same length...
When performing a hydroxide relaxer procedure:
do not shampoo firstTo avoid scalp irritation, do not shampoo the hair prior to application...
No more than ________ of the natural curl should be removed with chemical relaxer.
80%To go beyond 80% will likely damage the hair.


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