Cosmetology Exam Review 11: Haircutting

An Exam Review For Cosmetology College Class. Info Taken From Http://glowstick.us And Made Into A Flash Card.
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The most effective way to establish design lines that are proportionate is with:
reference points

Reference points, which mark where the surface of the head changes or the behavior of the hair changes, ensure a balanced design.
The reference point that is the highest point on top of the head is the:

The apex is located by placing a comb flat on top of the head; the comb will rest on that highest point.
The widest area of the head, starting at the temples and ending at the bottom of the crown, is the:
parietal ridge

The parietal ridge is found by placing a comb flat against the side of the head. Where the head starts to curve away from the comb is the parietal ridge.
Placing a comb flat against the nape area and observing where the comb leaves the head is one way to find the:
occipital bone

The occipital bone can be found simply by feeling the base of the skull.
The widest points in the ________ are the two front corners.
fringe (bangs) area

Cutting past the two front corners can cause the fringe to end up on the sides of the haircut once it is dry.
Between the apex and the back of the parietal ridge is an area of the head called the:

It is very important to pay attention to this area when performing any haircutting service.
When combed into its natural falling position, the fringe or bangs area falls no farther than:
the outer corners of the eyes

The fringe area is a triangular section that begins at the apex and ends at the front corners.
The top of the head can be found by parting the hair:
at the parietal ridge

The top of the head is where the hair lies on the head form.
Straight lines that are level and direct the eye from one side to the other are:
horizontal lines

Horizontal lines are usually used to create one-length and low-elevation haircuts.
Diagonal lines are used in a technique in which the ends of the hair are cut at a slight taper, called:

Beveling creates fullness in a haircut by cutting the ends of the hair at a taper.
For control during haircutting, the hair is parted into uniform working areas called:

The hair is parted into sections at the start of the haircut.
When cutting, the subsection of hair is held from the head at an angle or degree called:

Elevation is an action that occurs when you lift a subsection of hair above zero degrees.
Elevating the hair below 90 degrees when cutting has the effect of:
building weight

The less you elevate the hair, the more weight you build.
As a general rule, as you elevate the hair more, you create:
more graduation

The most commonly used elevations are 45 and 90 degrees. The more you elevate, the more graduation you create.
The length the hair will be cut is determined by a section of hair called the:

The guideline is usually the first section you cut when creating a shape.
The guideline that does not move and is used mostly in blunt haircuts is the:
stationary guideline

All other sections are combed to the stationary guideline and cut at the same angle and length.
A guideline that moves as the haircut progresses is called a:
traveling guideline

When you use a traveling guide, you take a small slice of the previous subsection and move it to the next position, or subsection, where it becomes the new guideline.
The cutting line, which creates the end-result shape, is the angle at which the:
fingers are held during cutting

The cutting line is ultimately the line that is cut.
When the hair is combed away from its natural falling position toward a guideline, rather than straight out from the head, that is called:

Overdirection is used mostly in graduated and layered haircuts and where you want to create a length increase in the design.
To create a length or weight increase in a haircut, you can use overdirection and a:
stationary guideline

With overdirection all the sections are combed to the stationary guideline to create an increase in length or weight.
By using a traveling guide and no overdirection to cut the same lengths throughout a haircut, you are creating:
uniform layers

This is the basic procedure for creating uniform layers.
When straight hair dries, it shrinks:
1/4 to 1/2 inch

All hair shrinks when it dries; curly hair shrinks even more than straight hair.
Curly hair shrinks as it dries even more than straight hair does, by about:
1/2 inch to two inches

You need to cut the hair longer than the desired length to make up for this shrinkage.
The hair grows from the scalp in a particular direction known as a:
growth pattern

Growth patterns include cowlicks, whorls, and other patterns.
The client consultation before a haircut should always include analyzing the:
face shape

A great haircut must not only be technically sound but also suit the client's face.
The behavior of the hair is determined by density, texture, wave patterns,:
hairlines and growth patterns

All these characteristics must be considered in a hair analysis during the client consultation.
Hair texture, classified as coarse, medium, or fine, is based on the:
diameter of each hair strand

The diameter of the hair strands contributes to the general quality and feel of the hair.
Wave pattern, or the amount of ________ in the hair strand, varies within the same head of hair.

Wave pattern is described as straight, wavy, curly, and extremely curly.
Blunt or straight lines are cut in the hair with:
haircutting shears

Haircutting shears are a basic tool used in blunt cuts as well as in some texturizing techniques.
To create a softer effect on the ends of the hair, use:
a straight razor

Razors are also used to thin hair out or texturize in certain areas.
For close tapers in the nape and sides when using the shears-over-comb technique, use the:
barber comb

The narrow end of the comb allows the shears to get very close to the head.
Removing bulk from the hair is done mostly with:
thinning shears

Thinning shears are also called texturizing shears, tapering shears, or notching shears.
Generally, most of the work in haircutting is done by the:
cutting hand

The cutting hand holds the shears and parts, combs, and cuts the hair.
The part of the shears in which the ring finger is placed is the:
finger grip of still blade

The ring finger goes into the finger grip of the still, or unmoving, blade.
The most efficient way to handle both comb and shears while combing the hair is to:
palm the shears

It is best to hold both tools during the entire haircutting process, and to palm the shears while combing or parting the hair.
The proper position for the little finger, when holding the razor with the handle higher than the shank, is in the:

The little finger is positioned in the tang, underneath the handle.
During the haircutting procedure, the fine teeth of the styling comb are used to:
comb the subsection before cutting

The fine teeth provide more tension for cutting than the wider teeth.
The amount of pressure created by stretching or pulling a subsection is called:

Consistent tension is important for consistent, even results in a haircut.
When precise lines are desired in a haircut on straight hair, use:
maximum tension

Maximum tension can be used on straight hair to create sharp, precise lines.
The hand position used most often when cutting uniform or increasing layers is:
cutting over the fingers

These haircuts call for cutting over the fingers or on top of the knuckles.
The best way to maintain control of the subsection when cutting with a vertical or diagonal cutting line is by:
cutting palm to palm

Cutting this way is the best way to control the subsection, especially with regard to elevation and overdirection.
Cut hair on the floor should be swept up and disposed of:
before blow-drying the client

Sweeping up the cut hair is both sanitary and safer for you and the client.
You should replace the blade in your razor:
prior to each new client

Replacing the blade and discarding used blades in a puncture-proof container is good sanitation practice.
Another term for blunt haircut is:
zero-elevation cut

The blunt cut is cut with no elevation or overdirection.
The most common elevation used to cut a graduated haircut is:
45 degrees

Graduated haircuts are cut with low to medium elevation, most commonly 45 degrees.
When cutting a long layered haircut, the hair is held at a:
180-degree angle

This technique gives more volume to hairstyles and can be combined with other basic haircuts.
Layers create movement and volume in the hair, and the ends appear:
farther apart

Layered cuts generally have less weight than graduated cuts, in which the ends appear closer together.
If you do not maintain an even amount of moisture in the hair as you cut, you can expect:
uneven results

Dry hair responds to cutting differently than wet hair, so the finished haircut may be uneven.
Parting the hair opposite to the way in which you cut it to check the lengths is known as:

For example, if you use vertical partings to cut, you should use horizontal partings to cross-check.
In a haircut using vertical partings, cross-checking should be done with:
horizontal partings

Cross-checking is parting the haircut in the opposite way from which you cut it in order to check the lengths.
A blunt haircut that is cut with the client's head tilted forward will have:
slight graduation of the line

If the head is tilted forward, the hair does not fall in its natural falling position, and some graduation results.
A variation of the basic blunt cut is the classic A-line bob, which is cut with a:
diagonal cutting line

A diagonal cutting line, or finger angle, is used to create the lines of this cut.
When cutting the soft, rounded shape of a uniform-layered cut, all the hair is:
cut at the same length

The hair lengths are uniform, meaning they are elevated to 90 degrees and cut to the same length.
Curly hair is different from straight hair in that it:
shrinks more after it dries

For every 1/4 inch you cut when curly hair is wet, it will shrink up to 1 inch when dry.
A tool that should be avoided when cutting curly hair is:
a razor

Cutting curly hair with a razor can weaken the cuticle and cause the hair to frizz.
The fringe area is the hair that lies approximately between the:
outer corners of the eyes

The fringe area, or bangs, is the hair that lies between the two front corners of the head or the outer corners of the eyes.
When you work with a razor, the ends are cut:
at an angle

Cutting at an angle produces softer shapes with more visible separation, or a "feathered" effect, on the ends.
Razor cutting is different from shears cutting in that:
the guide is above the fingers

This is the main difference between cutting with a razor and with shears.
When working with a razor, remember not to use it on:
dry hair

Cutting dry hair with a razor can make the hair frizz and can be painful for the client.
The method of cutting hair in which the shears are not opened and closed but kept partially open as they glide along the edge of the section is:
slide cutting

Slide cutting is a good way to layer very long hair and keep weight at the perimeter.
The texturizing technique in which pieces of hair are snipped out with the tips of the shears is:
free-hand notching

This technique is generally used throughout the interior of the section rather than at the ends.
A barbering technique in which the hair is not held between the fingers is:

In this technique, you hold the hair in place with the comb while you use the tips of the shears to remove the lengths.
When performing the technique called shears-over-comb, you hold the comb:
at an angle to the head

The comb is placed teeth first into the hairline, then turned so that the teeth are angled away from the head.
When cutting shears-over-comb, it is important to work with areas:
no wider than the blade

Always work with small areas at a time.
When using the shears-over-comb technique, it is crucial that:
one blade stays still

One blade remains still, parallel to the spine of the comb, while the other blade moves.
A commonly used technique that removes bulk without shortening the length is called:

Texturizing can be used to add volume, remove volume, make hair "move," and blend one area into another.
A technique in which the razor makes small circular motions is called:
razor rotation

Razor rotation is similar to razor-over-comb except that you make small circular motions.
Because many clients are afraid of the word "thinning," it is better to use another term for it, such as:
removing weight

The terms "removing bulk" or "removing weight" are a more modern choice of words for "thinning."
When clipper cutting, if you want to cut all the hair to one exact length, you can use a/an:
length guard attachment

Length guards are attached to the clippers and can be used to cut one length or in different combinations to create different lengths.
The best tool for creating a flat-top or square shape is:

The clipper-over-comb technique allows you to cut the hair very close to the scalp and create a flat-top or square shape.
The clipper-over comb technique differs from shears-over-comb in that the clippers move:
sideways across the comb

The comb stays in position as you move the clippers across it.
An important point to remember when cutting with clippers, especially in the nape, is to always work:
against the natural growth patterns

Working against the growth patterns ensures that you are lifting the hair away from the head and cutting evenly.
For cleaning necklines and around the ears, you may use smaller-sized clippers called:

Edgers or trimmers are small enough to use for closer, more precise work on these areas.
When clipper-cutting the hair very short and close to the head, the comb most often used is the:
barber comb

The classic barbering comb is often used in the nape and sides and around the ears, and allows you to cut the hair close to the head.
A factor to consider when trimming facial hair is that it is very:

Facial hair is very coarse and may dull haircutting shears.

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