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Side ASide B
The most effective way to establish design lines that are proportionate is with:
reference pointsReference points, which mark where the surface of the head changes or the behavior of the hair changes, ensure a balanced design.
The reference point that is the highest point on top of the head is the:
apexThe apex is located by placing a comb flat on top of the head; the comb will rest on that highest point.
The widest area of the head, starting at the temples and ending at the bottom of the crown, is the:
parietal ridgeThe parietal ridge is found by placing a comb flat against the side of the head. Where the head starts to curve away from the comb is the parietal ridge.
Placing a comb flat against the nape area and observing where the comb leaves the head is one way to find the:
occipital boneThe occipital bone can be found simply by feeling the base of the skull.
The widest points in the ________ are the two front corners.
fringe (bangs) areaCutting past the two front corners can cause the fringe to end up on the sides of the haircut once it is dry.
Between the apex and the back of the parietal ridge is an area of the head called the:
crownIt is very important to pay attention to this area when performing any haircutting service.
When combed into its natural falling position, the fringe or bangs area falls no farther than:
the outer corners of the eyesThe fringe area is a triangular section that begins at the apex and ends at the front corners.
The top of the head can be found by parting the hair:
at the parietal ridgeThe top of the head is where the hair lies on the head form.
Straight lines that are level and direct the eye from one side to the other are:
horizontal linesHorizontal lines are usually used to create one-length and low-elevation haircuts.
Diagonal lines are used in a technique in which the ends of the hair are cut at a slight taper, called:
bevelingBeveling creates fullness in a haircut by cutting the ends of the hair at a taper.
For control during haircutting, the hair is parted into uniform working areas called:
sectionsThe hair is parted into sections at the start of the haircut.
When cutting, the subsection of hair is held from the head at an angle or degree called:
elevationElevation is an action that occurs when you lift a subsection of hair above zero degrees.
Elevating the hair below 90 degrees when cutting has the effect of:
building weightThe less you elevate the hair, the more weight you build.
As a general rule, as you elevate the hair more, you create:
more graduationThe most commonly used elevations are 45 and 90 degrees. The more you elevate, the more graduation you create.
The length the hair will be cut is determined by a section of hair called the:
guidelineThe guideline is usually the first section you cut when creating a shape.
The guideline that does not move and is used mostly in blunt haircuts is the:
stationary guidelineAll other sections are combed to the stationary guideline and cut at the same angle and length.
A guideline that moves as the haircut progresses is called a:
traveling guidelineWhen you use a traveling guide, you take a small slice of the previous subsection and move it to the next position, or subsection, where it becomes the new guideline.
The cutting line, which creates the end-result shape, is the angle at which the:
fingers are held during cuttingThe cutting line is ultimately the line that is cut.
When the hair is combed away from its natural falling position toward a guideline, rather than straight out from the head, that is called:
overdirectionOverdirection is used mostly in graduated and layered haircuts and where you want to create a length increase in the design.
To create a length or weight increase in a haircut, you can use overdirection and a:
stationary guidelineWith overdirection all the sections are combed to the stationary guideline to create an increase in length or weight.
By using a traveling guide and no overdirection to cut the same lengths throughout a haircut, you are creating:
uniform layersThis is the basic procedure for creating uniform layers.
When straight hair dries, it shrinks:
1/4 to 1/2 inchAll hair shrinks when it dries; curly hair shrinks even more than straight hair.
Curly hair shrinks as it dries even more than straight hair does, by about:
1/2 inch to two inchesYou need to cut the hair longer than the desired length to make up for this shrinkage.
The hair grows from the scalp in a particular direction known as a:
growth patternGrowth patterns include cowlicks, whorls, and other patterns.
The client consultation before a haircut should always include analyzing the:
face shapeA great haircut must not only be technically sound but also suit the client's face.
The behavior of the hair is determined by density, texture, wave patterns,:
hairlines and growth patternsAll these characteristics must be considered in a hair analysis during the client consultation.
Hair texture, classified as coarse, medium, or fine, is based on the:
diameter of each hair strandThe diameter of the hair strands contributes to the general quality and feel of the hair.
Wave pattern, or the amount of ________ in the hair strand, varies within the same head of hair.
movementWave pattern is described as straight, wavy, curly, and extremely curly.
Blunt or straight lines are cut in the hair with:
haircutting shearsHaircutting shears are a basic tool used in blunt cuts as well as in some texturizing techniques.
To create a softer effect on the ends of the hair, use:
a straight razorRazors are also used to thin hair out or texturize in certain areas.
For close tapers in the nape and sides when using the shears-over-comb technique, use the:
barber combThe narrow end of the comb allows the shears to get very close to the head.
Removing bulk from the hair is done mostly with:
thinning shearsThinning shears are also called texturizing shears, tapering shears, or notching shears.
Generally, most of the work in haircutting is done by the:
cutting handThe cutting hand holds the shears and parts, combs, and cuts the hair.
The part of the shears in which the ring finger is placed is the:
finger grip of still bladeThe ring finger goes into the finger grip of the still, or unmoving, blade.
The most efficient way to handle both comb and shears while combing the hair is to:
palm the shearsIt is best to hold both tools during the entire haircutting process, and to palm the shears while combing or parting the hair.
The proper position for the little finger, when holding the razor with the handle higher than the shank, is in the:
tangThe little finger is positioned in the tang, underneath the handle.
During the haircutting procedure, the fine teeth of the styling comb are used to:
comb the subsection before cuttingThe fine teeth provide more tension for cutting than the wider teeth.
The amount of pressure created by stretching or pulling a subsection is called:
tensionConsistent tension is important for consistent, even results in a haircut.
When precise lines are desired in a haircut on straight hair, use:
maximum tensionMaximum tension can be used on straight hair to create sharp, precise lines.
The hand position used most often when cutting uniform or increasing layers is:
cutting over the fingersThese haircuts call for cutting over the fingers or on top of the knuckles.
The best way to maintain control of the subsection when cutting with a vertical or diagonal cutting line is by:
cutting palm to palmCutting this way is the best way to control the subsection, especially with regard to elevation and overdirection.
Cut hair on the floor should be swept up and disposed of:
before blow-drying the clientSweeping up the cut hair is both sanitary and safer for you and the client.
You should replace the blade in your razor:
prior to each new clientReplacing the blade and discarding used blades in a puncture-proof container is good sanitation practice.
Another term for blunt haircut is:
zero-elevation cutThe blunt cut is cut with no elevation or overdirection.
The most common elevation used to cut a graduated haircut is:
45 degreesGraduated haircuts are cut with low to medium elevation, most commonly 45 degrees.
When cutting a long layered haircut, the hair is held at a:
180-degree angleThis technique gives more volume to hairstyles and can be combined with other basic haircuts.
Layers create movement and volume in the hair, and the ends appear:
farther apartLayered cuts generally have less weight than graduated cuts, in which the ends appear closer together.
If you do not maintain an even amount of moisture in the hair as you cut, you can expect:
uneven resultsDry hair responds to cutting differently than wet hair, so the finished haircut may be uneven.
Parting the hair opposite to the way in which you cut it to check the lengths is known as:
cross-checkingFor example, if you use vertical partings to cut, you should use horizontal partings to cross-check.
In a haircut using vertical partings, cross-checking should be done with:
horizontal partingsCross-checking is parting the haircut in the opposite way from which you cut it in order to check the lengths.
A blunt haircut that is cut with the client's head tilted forward will have:
slight graduation of the lineIf the head is tilted forward, the hair does not fall in its natural falling position, and some graduation results.
A variation of the basic blunt cut is the classic A-line bob, which is cut with a:
diagonal cutting lineA diagonal cutting line, or finger angle, is used to create the lines of this cut.
When cutting the soft, rounded shape of a uniform-layered cut, all the hair is:
cut at the same lengthThe hair lengths are uniform, meaning they are elevated to 90 degrees and cut to the same length.
Curly hair is different from straight hair in that it:
shrinks more after it driesFor every 1/4 inch you cut when curly hair is wet, it will shrink up to 1 inch when dry.
A tool that should be avoided when cutting curly hair is:
a razorCutting curly hair with a razor can weaken the cuticle and cause the hair to frizz.
The fringe area is the hair that lies approximately between the:
outer corners of the eyesThe fringe area, or bangs, is the hair that lies between the two front corners of the head or the outer corners of the eyes.
When you work with a razor, the ends are cut:
at an angleCutting at an angle produces softer shapes with more visible separation, or a "feathered" effect, on the ends.
Razor cutting is different from shears cutting in that:
the guide is above the fingersThis is the main difference between cutting with a razor and with shears.
When working with a razor, remember not to use it on:
dry hairCutting dry hair with a razor can make the hair frizz and can be painful for the client.
The method of cutting hair in which the shears are not opened and closed but kept partially open as they glide along the edge of the section is:
slide cuttingSlide cutting is a good way to layer very long hair and keep weight at the perimeter.
The texturizing technique in which pieces of hair are snipped out with the tips of the shears is:
free-hand notchingThis technique is generally used throughout the interior of the section rather than at the ends.
A barbering technique in which the hair is not held between the fingers is:
shears-over-combIn this technique, you hold the hair in place with the comb while you use the tips of the shears to remove the lengths.
When performing the technique called shears-over-comb, you hold the comb:
at an angle to the headThe comb is placed teeth first into the hairline, then turned so that the teeth are angled away from the head.
When cutting shears-over-comb, it is important to work with areas:
no wider than the bladeAlways work with small areas at a time.
When using the shears-over-comb technique, it is crucial that:
one blade stays stillOne blade remains still, parallel to the spine of the comb, while the other blade moves.
A commonly used technique that removes bulk without shortening the length is called:
texturizingTexturizing can be used to add volume, remove volume, make hair "move," and blend one area into another.
A technique in which the razor makes small circular motions is called:
razor rotationRazor rotation is similar to razor-over-comb except that you make small circular motions.
Because many clients are afraid of the word "thinning," it is better to use another term for it, such as:
removing weightThe terms "removing bulk" or "removing weight" are a more modern choice of words for "thinning."
When clipper cutting, if you want to cut all the hair to one exact length, you can use a/an:
length guard attachmentLength guards are attached to the clippers and can be used to cut one length or in different combinations to create different lengths.
The best tool for creating a flat-top or square shape is:
clippersThe clipper-over-comb technique allows you to cut the hair very close to the scalp and create a flat-top or square shape.
The clipper-over comb technique differs from shears-over-comb in that the clippers move:
sideways across the combThe comb stays in position as you move the clippers across it.
An important point to remember when cutting with clippers, especially in the nape, is to always work:
against the natural growth patternsWorking against the growth patterns ensures that you are lifting the hair away from the head and cutting evenly.
For cleaning necklines and around the ears, you may use smaller-sized clippers called:
edgersEdgers or trimmers are small enough to use for closer, more precise work on these areas.
When clipper-cutting the hair very short and close to the head, the comb most often used is the:
barber combThe classic barbering comb is often used in the nape and sides and around the ears, and allows you to cut the hair close to the head.
A factor to consider when trimming facial hair is that it is very:
coarseFacial hair is very coarse and may dull haircutting shears.