Contemporary Moral Values

Different Types Of Ethics And Their Definitions.
Created Oct 12, 2009
by tonyg88
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Prudence, Temperance, Justice
Normative Ethics
Good is the norm for greek philosophers
1st order ethics:
abortion, poverty, capital punishment ( hot topics )
2nd order ethics 
foundations in ethics (is there a god? how do we know? how do we define it?
philosophical realism
things exist independently and they exist independently of what we think of them.
theological realism 
god exists whether or not we believe in him or not
moral realism 
there is a good whether we believe in it or not
types of moral realism
ethical naturalism ethical non-naturalism intuitionism
things are either true or false.
things are not true and false independently of us.  true and false are subjective.
moral anti-realism 
good exists but it depends on our thinking of it.
the good exists based on how we react to it emotionally.
the idea tha good exists, but it doesn't exist until the moment that we decide what it is.
Deontology - deon means duties
ethics based on rules or duties.  this type of ethics is only concerned with the present...
ethical naturalism 
the good exists and the good has natural properties to it.  good has natural properties.
ethical non-naturalism 
the good has no natural properties, it simply is.
in the catholic tradition intuitionism is known as natural moral law.
divine command ethics
God commands certain things, based on the ten commandments.
natural law
we know there are certain rules that we have to follow by nature.
categorical imperative
you should only act if that action can be made into a universal rule.
acting based on the expected outcomes or consequences of a situation.
ethics based on achieving particular goals, based on trying to bring the most happiness in...
the limits of human knowledge.  how do we know what Jesus would do?
based on relationship, that we are going to sacrifice ourselves on behalf of someone else.
based on self interest.
moral relativism 
what's good for me may not be good for you.  how we understand good, changes based on...
harsh relativists 
what's good for me, may not be good for you - nothing objective.
mild relativists
there may be something objectively good, but it is subject to interpretation.
moral relativists
freedom to make moral decisions and freedom from external coercion.
tolerance of another's moral decisions with the expectations they will tolerate our moral decisions.
the is/ought thesis
facts describe what is and values tell us what ought to be.  the distinction between fact...
types of ethical relativism 
cultural relativism ethical relativism conceptual relativism ethical skepticismtolerant relativism
five tenants of relativism
1.  different societies have different moral codes.2.  the moral code of a society...
problems with cultural relativism 
hard to decide what is a society and who is in is possible to be a member of more than...
cultural relativism 
the consideration of what is right or wrong varies from culture to culture.
ethical relativism 
all people should act in ways their societies have deemed appropriate (truth doesn't change....
conceptual relativism 
the very meaning of right is relative to a particular culture, the word right or good has no...
ethical skepticism 
no moral claims are every true and even if they were, we couldn't know that.
tolerant relativism 
we must tolerate the moral claims of other people.classical sense - tolerate the person apart...
fletcher's 3 approaches - best example of a christian relativist - all moral decisions are...
- legalism - all moral judgements - set of rules and regulations to guide their choices.- antinomianism...
4 principles of situation ethics
1. pragmatism - success oriented (focus on what is right or good)2.  relativism - base...
6 propositions of situation ethics
1.  only one thing is good(love), nothing else.2.  the ruling norm of christian decision...
Teological ethics - 
ethics based on goals or aims that an individual sets.
teology in history
plato:  teleology in nature compared with a human (external)aristotle - the teleology...
distinctions in teleological ethics
the difference between seeking and setting, when you set a goal, on your way to reaching it...
modern examples of teleological ethics
adam smith - free markets and the pursuit of profit are the common goal to which we naturally...
moral subjectivism 
the idea that believing a moral proposition is what makes it true relative to those who believe...
virtue ethics
from the greek, arete, virtue, also referred to as areteleological ethics.  concerned...

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