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What is the main function of connective tissue?
primarily used for support
What are the three types of connective tissue?
fibroconnective cartilage bone
What is fibroconnective tissue mainly composed of?
matrix mainly composed of fibers
What are the 6 types of fibroconnective tissue?
reticular areolar elastic dense regular dense irregular adipose
What is areolar tissue?
-loose connective tissue- packing material holds organs in place -most common connective tissue -component of some basal membranes -separates muscles--allows for muscles to slide...
What is areolar tissue composed of?
fibers in extracellular matrix are collagen and elastin -extracellular matrix is not well organized
What is reticular tissue?
-form an internal skeleton for lymph, bone marrow, fat, spleen
What is reticular tissue composed of?
elastin and collagen
What is adipose tissue?
-highly vsacular insulator -shock absorber -energy store
What is adipose tissue composed of?
-cells account for 90% of tissue mass -little matrix present
What is dense regular tissue and what is it composed of?
closely packed parallel collagen fibers -few cells
Where are dense regular tissues located?
-found where tension is exerted in a particular direction -tendons and ligaments
What is dense irregular tissue and what is it composed of?
-closely packed non-directional collagen -few cells
Where are dense irregular tissued located?
-forms sheets where tension is exerted in many directions -dermis of skin, muscle fascia, organ and nerve coverings
What is elastic fibers and what are they composed of?
-composed of mostly elastin fibers
Where would you find elastic tissue?
vocal cords vertebral connective tissue
What is cartilage?
type of connective tissue that is avascular (which makes it slow to heal) and not well innervated
What is the composition of the cartilage matrix?
-ground substance: chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid -collagen (main fiber) and elastin
What is the perichondrium?
surround tissue from which nutrients diffuse
What does the perichondrium do?
-limits cartilage thickness- nutrients must diffuse entire tissue thickness -gives rise to chondrocytes
What are the three types of cartilage?
Hyaline Fibrocartilage Elastic
What makes up the hyaline cartilage?
tough and flexible -much matrix -few cells -shock absorber
Where would you find hyaline cartilage?
-covers ends of long bones (articular carticale-eroded in OA) -forms the skeleton of trachea and bronchi
what makes up fibrocartilage?
-less firm than hyaline -more cells and fibers -similar in strucutre to dense regular tissue
Where would you find fibrocartilage?
-transitional between tendon and articular hyaline cartilage -component of joint capsules and spongy knee menisci
What makes up elastic cartilage?
contains more elastin fibers than other tpes of cartilage
Where would you find elastic cartilage?
forms ear pinna epiglottis
What is bone?
-a connective tissue with a matrix of mostly calcium and phosphate
What is 65% of bone weight?
calcium hydroxyapatite -calcium phosphate, calcium hydroxise, calcium carbonate
What is significant about the tropocollagen subunits?
-gives bones elasticity -fracture resistance -bone collagen decreases with age--> increased fracture risk
What are other significant characteristics of bone?
-highly vascular and well innervated -contains lymph channels
What is a function of bone?
-functions in mineral storeage and blood cell production
What regulates calcium metabolism?
bone remodeling (deposition-remodeling)
What happens if you have a decreased blood calcium levels?
-causes an increase in parathromone(PTH) which causes increased osteoclast activity
What happens if you have an increased blood calcium level?
-causes an increase in calcitonin, which causes an increase in osteoblast activity
What is red bone marrow and what does it produce?
contains hematopoietic tissue -produces blood cells
What are the 6 influences on Bone Growth
HGH levels of calcium phosphorous vitamin D estrogen testosterone