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Side ASide B
what does connective tissue consist of?
individual cells scattered within an extracellular matrix
what is the extra-cellular matrix made of?
various fibers suspended in a fluid known as ground substance
what does ground substance consisnt of
what helps Ground substance exist as either watery liquid or firm solid form
chemical composition, amount of tension and temperature
what does the thixotropy describe
ability of ground substance to become more liquid as a movement and temp of the tissue increases
what 3 fibers are suspended in the ground substance
what shape is collagen fiber?
long , straight, wound like a rope
what does the shape confer to the connective tissue?
tensile strength and flexibility
where are collagen fibers more abundant?
tissues that require a strong resistance to force like ligaments and tendons
what shape are reticular fribers?
thin and branch into tiny nets capable of resisting force in multiple directions
what can the reticular fibers do?
help hold organs and support structures together
what protein is in elastic fiber?
how does elastic fiber look?
branched and wavy
why are they in connective tissue?
so that the tissue can return to original shape after being stratched
what so firbroblasts do?
produce and secrete proteins that make up the fibers in the extra-cellular matrix
what is specific name for fibroblast in the bone?
what is specific name for fibroblast in the cartilage?
give an example of other individual cells found in connective tissue
immune cells, like mast cells macrophages , adipocytes
give 4 types of connective tissue
what does the loose connective tissue consist of?
high levels of ground substance and fewer fibers adipose tissue and the superficial (just below the skin)
what does the dense connective tissue consist of?
thicker and stronger. more collagen fibers and less ground substance then loose connective tissue
give example of dense connective tissue
ligaments, tendons, joint capsules
what does the fluid connective tissue consist of?
watery because presence of watery (92%) plasma in exracellular matrix
examples of fluid connective tissue
blood and lymph
what does the supporting connective tissue consist of?
strong solid because additional calcium salts deposited in ground substance
examples of supportive connective tissue
cartilage and bone
connective tissue stores energy in the form of?
fat cells (adipose)
give the names of the types of synovial joints
ball and sockethingepivotcondyloidsaddle gliding
what are cadavers?
preserved human bodies used for scientific study
list the 8 functions of connective tissue
bindssupportsstrengthenscompartmentalizesprotects and insulatesserves as transport systemlocation of stored energy reservesmain source of immune responses
what are proteoglycans made of?
core protein and gags ( glycosaminoglycans)
name the 4 types of polysaccharides found in ground substance
_GAGs -glycosaminoglycans(attract water and make g.s more gel like_hyaluronic acid 9viscous and slippery (binds cells/lubricates joints_Chondroitin sulphate (support and adhesion...
what are the types of proteins in ground substance
proteoglycans and adhesion proteins(e.g fibronectin,binds to both collagen and ground substance and attaches cells to ground substance)
give location of areolar loose tissue
give location of adipose loose tissue
sub cutaneous fat and e.g around kidneys
give location of reticular loose tissue
blood vessels and smooth tissue
give location of dense regular tissue
ligaments and tendons and retinacula
give location of dense irregular tissue
fasciae e.g abdomen
give location of dense elastic tissue
some ligaments of vertebral column and lung tissue
where would you find some smooth muscle cells
bronchial walls or arteries
what is surrounding smooth muscle cells?
blue stained collagen separating one bundle of cells from its neighbour
what does the retinacula do?
retains tendons in position (dense regular)