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Side ASide B
Compare the structural and functional differences between the somatic and autonomic nervous system.
Autonomic: Involuntary, interoceptors, sypathetic and parasympathetic divisions, neurotransmittersSomatic: Voluntary, exteroceptors, single motor neuron
Distinguish between the pre- and postganglionic neurons, in terms of location
Specify the different origins and destination ganglia for the sympathetic and parasympatheic preganglionic neurons
Parasympathetic: Craniosacral outflow; brainstem nuclei of cranial nerves III, VII, IX and X; spinal cord segments S2- S4Sympathetic: Thoracolumnar outflow; lateral horn of gray matter...
Describe the differing locations of the ganglia of teh sympatheic and parasympathetic systems and their relative distance from the CNS.
parasympathetic: ganglia in or close to visceral organ Sympathetic: ganglia within a few cm of CNS: alongside vertebral column and anterior to vertebral column
Describe the location of the rami communicantes.
Parasympathetic: NoneSympathetic: Gray and White rami communicantes; white contain myelinated preganglionic fibers; grey contain unmyelinated postganglionic fibers
List the names and locationsof the different sympathetic ganglia.
"E" situations (exercise, emergency, excitement and embarrassment)- fight or flight response
Discuss the primary purpose of the sympathetic division and the general body functions it directs.
Pupils dilateHeart rate, force of contraction and blood pressure increaseAirways dilateBlood vessels to kidneys and gastrointestinal tract constrictBlood vessels to skeletal muscles,...
Discuss the primary purose of the parasympathetic division and the general body functions it directs
rest and digest:
Describe specific responses of effectors due to increased sympathetic stimulation.
Increased salivation, lacrimation, urination, digestion and defecation Decreased heart rate, diameter of airways and diameter of pupils
Identify the chemical nature of the autonomic neurotransmitter receptors and their location
Paravertebral ganglion= chain ganglion or trunk ganglion Innervate organs above the diaphragm like the heart and lungsPrevertebral ganglia= collateral ganglia...
Identify the cholinergic neurons, receptors, and neurotransmitters
neurons: release acetylcholinereceptors: receptors on the postsynaptic membrane that bind acetylcholine
Describe the effects of acetylcholine as a cholinergic neuro neurotransmitter
Nicotinic receptor: found in dendrites and cell bodies of sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons, the motor end plate in the neuromusclular junction...
Identify the adrenergic neurons, receptors, and neurotransmitters.
neurons: release norepinephrinereceptors: bind norepinephrine and epinephrine
Describe the effects of norepinephrine as an adrenergic neuron neurotransmitter
a1: Smooth muscle of blood vessels, radial muscles of eye, sphincter muscles of stomach and urninary bladder, salivary gland cells a2: smooth muscle in some blood vessels, beta...