Comparison Of Somatic And Autonomic Nervous Systems

Anatomy Of Autonomic Pathways
Physiological Effects Of The ANS
ANS Nerotransmitters And Receptors
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Compare the structural and functional differences between the somatic and autonomic nervous system.
Autonomic: Involuntary, interoceptors, sypathetic and parasympathetic divisions, neurotransmitters
Somatic: Voluntary, exteroceptors, single motor neuron
Distinguish between the pre- and postganglionic neurons, in terms of location
Specify the different origins and destination ganglia for the sympathetic and parasympatheic preganglionic neurons
Parasympathetic: Craniosacral outflow; brainstem nuclei of cranial nerves III, VII, IX and X; spinal cord segments S2- S4
Sympathetic: Thoracolumnar outflow; lateral horn of gray matter of spinal cord segments T1-L2
Describe the differing locations of the ganglia of teh sympatheic and parasympathetic systems and their relative distance from the CNS.
parasympathetic: ganglia in or close to visceral organ
Sympathetic: ganglia within a few cm of CNS: alongside vertebral column and anterior to vertebral column
Describe the location of the rami communicantes.
Parasympathetic: None
Sympathetic: Gray and White rami communicantes; white contain myelinated preganglionic fibers; grey contain unmyelinated postganglionic fibers
List the names and locationsof the different sympathetic ganglia.
"E" situations (exercise, emergency, excitement and embarrassment)- fight or flight response
Discuss the primary purpose of the sympathetic division and the general body functions it directs.
Pupils dilate
Heart rate, force of contraction and blood pressure increase
Airways dilate
Blood vessels to kidneys and gastrointestinal tract constrict
Blood vessels to skeletal muscles, cardiac muscle, liver and adipose tissue dilate
liver cells perform glycogenolysis and lipid cell perform lipolysis
Release of glucose by liver
Discuss the primary purose of the parasympathetic division and the general body functions it directs
rest and digest:

Describe specific responses of effectors due to increased sympathetic stimulation.
Increased salivation, lacrimation, urination, digestion and defecation
Decreased heart rate, diameter of airways and diameter of pupils
Identify the chemical nature of the autonomic neurotransmitter receptors and their location
Paravertebral ganglion= chain ganglion or trunk ganglion
Innervate organs above the diaphragm like the heart and lungs
Prevertebral ganglia= collateral ganglia
Prevertebral ganglia surround the following arteries that branch from the aorta
Identify the cholinergic neurons, receptors, and neurotransmitters
neurons: release acetylcholine
receptors: receptors on the postsynaptic membrane that bind acetylcholine

Describe the effects of acetylcholine as a cholinergic neuro neurotransmitter
Nicotinic receptor: found in dendrites and cell bodies of sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons, the motor end plate in the neuromusclular junction and adrenal medullary cells
Muscarinic receptor: found in all parasympathetic target organs, sweat glands and some blood vessels in skeletal muscle
Identify the adrenergic neurons, receptors, and neurotransmitters.
neurons: release norepinephrine
receptors: bind norepinephrine and epinephrine
Describe the effects of norepinephrine as an adrenergic neuron neurotransmitter
a1: Smooth muscle of blood vessels, radial muscles of eye, sphincter muscles of stomach and urninary bladder, salivary gland cells
a2: smooth muscle in some blood vessels, beta cells in pancreatic islets, pancreatic acinar cells, and blood platelets
b1: cardiac muscle and adipose cells
b2: Smooth muscle in airways, blood vessels and walls of internal organs; cillary muscles
b3: brown adipose tissue

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