COMM Exam 2

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COMM Exam 2

Comm Exam

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Managing Uncertainty
Uncertainty- when ______ are violated
when we receive information that reduces uncertainty, we are more ______ that we understand _____, _____, and ______
confident, ourselves, other people, the world around us
uncertainty= the inablility to
predict or explain someone's attitudes or behaviors
high uncertainty- feeling ____ or ______ about the ability to predict or explain one's attitude and behaviors
unsure or insecure
low uncertainty- feeling _____ in their ability to predict and explain behaviors
self uncertainty- people's own feelings about
how involved they want to be in a relationship
partner uncertainty- feeling uncertain about
partner's feelings and intentions, including whether their partner reciprocates their feelings
relationship uncertainty- uncertainty about
state of the relationship, relationship definitions, future of the relationship, types of behavior that are acceptable
uncertainty reduction theory- first comm theory to focus on ______, most commonly applied to understand in relational contexts
people generally ______ uncertainty, therefore motivated to ______ it
dislike, reduce
have to get to know people better to
reduce uncertainty
uncertainty associated with
uncertainty with a partner linked to
predicted outcome value theory- people are
not driven by a need to reduce uncertainty in all cases
outcome values- relate to people's predictions about how _______ or ______ future interactions with a particular person would be
rewarding, unrewarding
high outcome value- when people are perceived to be more ________ than other potential partners
low outcome value- when people are perceived to be less _____ than other potential partners
initially reduce uncertainty as a way to find out how we feel about a person, then _____ or _____ ____ _____ becomes the driving force behind whether we try to seek further information
positive, negative outcome value
outcome value is positive= motivated to
reduce uncertainty
outcome value is negative=
not motivated to redcue uncertainty
motivation to reduce uncertainty varies from
person to person
people with high need for closure= ____and _____
seize and freeze
people with uncertainty orientation= engage in more
uncertainty oriented individuals tend to ___ ____ in situations of elevated uncertainty= the dating scene
fair better
certainty oriented- hesitate to ____ _____ but more satisfied in _____
initiate relationships, relationships
certainty oriented= more ____ for partners
uncertainty oriented= adjust their predictions with ____ _____, hinders _____
new information, trust
uncertainty management theory- uncertainty is not ___ or ____, but something that is
good, bad, managed
uncertainty only produced negative emotions when not having information is perceived as
we sometimes prefer to keep a level of uncertainty in _____ especially when reducing uncertainty can lead to ____ _____
relationships, negative information
cross sex friendships- uncertainty is ____ and ____ (whether romantic potential exists)
accepted, preferred
relationships that stagnate usually characterized by a lack of
dialectics theory- people have _______ personal needs
dialectics= stability vs _____, connections to others vs _____, certainty vs _______
excitement, independence, uncertainty
we want a bit on each end of the dialectic- want both excitement and _____ in relationships
theory of motivated information management- people prefer _____ in some situations and _____ in others
certainty, uncertainty
decision to reduce uncertainty depends on ______ ____ and ____ ___
outcome expectancy, efficiency assessments
outcome expectancy- whether the outcome of the information search is expected to be
positive or negative
efficiency assessments- whether people feel they are able to ___ ____ and ___ ___ ___
gather information, cope with it
motivation to aquire relationship- threatening information- knowing partner's relationally threatening thoughts causes _____ and ____ ____
personal and relational stress
people who are more inclined to seek relationship threatening information are more likely to have ____ relationships
strategies for reducing uncertainty- ____, ____, and ____
passive, active, interactive
passive strategies- ______ of individuals
passive observation more effective when ____ ____ and
informal setting, interacting with others
active strategies- manipulating ____ ____ and seeing how someone reacts
social environment
asking ___ ___ about the person in question
third parties
interactice strategies- direct contact between ____ and ____
information seeker, target
includes _____ _____, _____ ____, and _____ the target
asking questions, encouraging disclosure, relaxing the target
can be through _______ cues- _____ or _______
non verbal, smiling, eye contact
secret tests for uncertainty reduction include-
asking third party, directness test, triangle test, separation tests, endurance tests, public presentation tests, indirect suggestion test
asking third party test=
feedback from social network members
directness test-
taking about the issue with the partner
triangle test
test the partner's committment, jealousy tests, secret admirer note
separation test
long physical break or ceasing contact and waiting to see how long it takes for a partner to call
endurance test
increases cost or reduces reward of relationship- partner becomes argumentative, dresses down
public presentation test
watching for reaction when introduced as boyfriend/ girlfriend
indirect suggestion test
hinting or joking to bring up a topic without taking direct responsibility
majority of uncertainty reduction strategies are
most indirect relationship is
friendship with romantic potential
direct strategies include
integrative communication, arguing/ making accusations, avoidance
high levels of intimacy= more likely to use
positive and direct behaviors
people are most likely to respond positively when
relationship was previously satisfying, partner was previously considered to be rewarding, event produced low levels of uncertainty, the event did not represent a highly negative violation of expectancies
behaviors that increase uncertainty=
competing relationships, unexplained loss of contact or closeness, sexual behavior, deception, change in personality or value, betraying confidence
competing relationships-
a friend or dating partner wants to spend more time with someone else
unexplained loss of contact
communication decrease for no reason
sexual behavior
discovering that a friend/ dating partner enganged in sexual behavior with another person
discovering friend/ dating partner had lied
change in personality or value
people realized their friend/ dating partner was different from who they used to be
betraying confidences-
instances in which people's friends or dating partners disclosed private information about them
expectancy violations theory- _______ vs _______ expectancies
predictive, prescriptive
predictive expectancies- tell people what to _____ in a given situation based on
expect, what normally occurs in that context or relationship
prescriptive expectancies- tell people what to _______ based on
expect, general rules of appropriateness
3 factors affect expectancies
communicator characteristics, relational charactersitics, context
communicator characteristics- refer to
individual differences- age, gender, ethnic background, personality traits
relational characteristics- refer to
how close we are with someone, what type of relationship we share, what types of shared experiences
context- _______ _____ and ___ ______
social situation, cultural influence
intergroup uncertainty reduction= make it more likely that
uncertainty will be reduced in intercultural interactions
people who identify strongly with their own culture group feel
more confident about interactions with people from another culture
when people perceive members of another culture favorably, they are likely to
look forward to interacting with them
according to expectancy violation theory, response will be contigent on ___ and ____
positive or negative interpretation of the behavior, the rewardingness of the partner
when unexpected behavior is more satisfying than expected behavior
positive violation
when the unexpected behavior is perceived to be less positive than the expected behavior
negative violation
nonrewarding communicators are evaluated the most highly if
they stay within the norms and avoid violating expectations
rewarding communicators= positive expectancy violations produce
better outcomes than expectancy confirming
common expectancy violations in relationships
criticism or accusation, relationship escalation, relationship de-escalation, uncharacteristic relational behavior, uncharacteristic social behavior, transgressions, acts of devotion, acts of disregard, gestures of inclusion
many expectancy violantions reduce
model of relational turbulence- turbulence during transition from
casual dating to committment
turbulence comes from partners' efforts to renogotiate levels of
relational uncertainty peaks in ______ of relationships
turbulence comes from
uncertainty in increasing committment and irritations from partners who come in the way of a person's goals
model of relational uncertainty- includes ____, ___ and ___ uncertainty
self, partner, relational
2 parts of the process-
foundations, oucomes
foundations- characteristics of ____,____, and _____
individuals, relationships, situations
individual characteristics= personality differences with managing
relational qualities= face-to-face vs
long distance
outcomes- types of outcomes include
cognitive, emotional, and communicative
cognitive outcomes- include
hightened awareness of partner characteristics and filtered perceptions of partners behavior
emotional outcomes- relational uncertainty=
negative emotion
communicative outcomes- uncertainty=
less willingnes to be direct, topic avoidance
research suggests we are more likely to develop relationships with people we are
exposed to more often
common long distance problems include-
unfounded jealousy, losing touch with your partner by not sharing information and feelings on a regualr basis
chances of success are better when
both parties are committed to making it work, if the relationship is firmly established before separation, both parties are willing to talk, both try to achieve co-presence as much as possible
more satisfaction, less uncertainty, less distress when partners are certain that
they will eventually reunite
in LDR, making plans both ___ ____ and ___ ____
enables relationships, constrains experiences
making plans as denial= ensures future time spent will be ____, not _____
satisfying, wasted (certainty)
sexual intimicy is ____/____
pressured, scheduled
making plans as balance= planning for conversations that have
uncertain outcomes, cause anxiety
making plans as segmentation= working on individual goals when separated but planing ____ ___ __ when together
focused couple time
Case study: Hitch
passive strategies used by Hitch=
getting info from bar tender, watching her with another guy
Hitch is more successfu than her other suitor because
listens, pays attention, exceeds expectations
Sara has the power to ____/____, then power shift
punish/ reward
Culture in notes
core difficulty in cross-cultural interactions= failure to recognize
relevant cross cultural differences
confusion created by two aspects of culture:
subject culture, objective culture
subject culture- _____ features of culture inclduing
psychological, values, patterns of thinking, assumptions
objective culture- the _____ and ____ of culture such as
artifacts, institutions, social customs, political structures, processes, art, literature
perception- the process of making sense of your ____ and _____ world, how you convert events into
physical, social, understanding
reality is built out of certain _____ commonly shared among members of the same culture
cultural assumptions- concepts which pervade a person's _____ and _____, define what is real
outlook, behavior
American cultural assumptions=
freedom, culture, democracy, American dream, materialism
beliefs are ____ for the content of past experiences=
storage, thoughts, memories, interpretations of events
beleifs are commonly accepted as
beleifs are so much a part of culture that you don't _____ or ____ ____
question, demand proof
beliefs form basis of
values are shared cultural ideas about what is ____, ____ and ____
true, right, beautiful
culture values are _____ and refer to goodness, desirability, etc
_____-> ______->______-> _______
belief, values, attitudes, behaviors
Intercultural Communication Competence
culture is a learned set of shared interpretations about ____, ____, and ____ which affect ______ of a large group of people
beliefs, values, norms, beliefs
focus is commonality of group behaviors, not necessarily ____/____, can be
race/ ethnicity, elderly, athletes, sexual orientations
important qualities of ICC-
motivation and attitude, tolerance of ambiguity
motivation and attitude- desire to ___ ___ ____ and having ___ ___ ways of thinking
communicate successfuly with strangers, culture general
tolerance of ambiguity- acceptance of high
uncertainty/ ambiguity
Key factors= ____, _____, and ______
motivation, intercultural knowlege, and skills in implementing
Culturally Competent Communication
5 critical communication elements
communication repetoire, situational awareness, self awareness, adaptability, knowlege about core cultural issues
communication repetoire
your skills to produce culturally appropriate communication behavior
situational awareness-
being able to attend conversational cues, to recognize misunderstandings rooted in assumptions and awkwardness
self awareness
your own cultural identity and beliefs as well as stereotypes about other people's
ability to adapt to cultural and personal features during encounter
knowledge about core cultural issues-
knowledge of stereotypes and norms
Pros of CCC
improves communication, improves cultural knowledge, help decrease uncertainty in relationships
Cons of CCC
could lead to over generalization, sometimes difficult to practice, don't know which patterns to spotlight/ ignore
culture influences how we
respond to people we meet and have relationships with them
Dimensions of cultural difference
locus of control, action orientation, attitudes toward time, connections to others, communication styles, power distance, uncertainty avoidance
locus of control=
control cultures vs constraint cultures
control cultures-
people control their own destinies, hard work pays off
constraint cultures
people are at the mercy of fate, acceptance is valued
action oriented=
doing cultures vs being cultures
doing cultures
what you do is important, success measured by accomplishments
being cultures
who you are is important, success measured by quality of life
attitudes toward time
monochromatic time cultures vs polychromatic time cultures
M time cultures
time should be scheduled and organized, time is money
P time cultures
time should unfold at its own pace, many matters can be handled at once, haste makes waste
connections to others=
individualist vs collectivist cultures
individualist cultures
individual is more important than group, standing out is valued, squeaky wheel gets grease
collectivist culture
group more important than individual, fitting in is valued, uneven nail gets hammered down
communication styles
low context vs high context
low context
meaning is in words, clarity prevents mistakes, say what you mean
high context
read between the lines, ambiguity to save face
power distance
high power distance vs low power distance
high power distance
power is a part of society, people are unequal, everyone has rightful place, importance of status and rank
low power distance
minimizing distinction between social classes, people are equal, challenging authority is acceptable and desireable
uncertainty avoidance
high tolerance for uncertainty vs low tolerance for uncertainty
high tolerance
unthreatened by change, more likely to tolerate and welcome people who don't fit the norm, comfortable with novelty
low tolerance
new situations are discomforting, deviant ideas are dangerous, need for defined rules and regulations
CH. 5
Initiating and Intensifying Relationships
5 types of communication that help people build relationships with new friends and romantic partners
relationship initiation, self disclosure, emotional support, negative assertion, and conflict management skills
skill at initiating relationships=
feel comfortable introducing themselves, issuing invitations= build more rewarding social networks
skill in self disclosure=
revealing personal information gradually, gradual increase in depth
skill in the provision of emotional support
being able to listen empathetically, offer advice that is well received
responsiveness- shows _____, ____ and ____, _____ centered communication style
care, concern, liking , other centered
skills in negative assertion
being able to say no to a friend's request, stand up for one's rights in a relationship
skill in conflict management
better able to listen to partner, understand partner's perspective, refrain from communicating hostile feelings
friendship formation strategies- ______ is an important factor in determining whether a relationship is formed
need for proximity reduced by
online social networking
self disclosure- occurs when
people reveal something about themselves to others
social penetration theory- self disclosure usually ____ ___ as people develop relationships
increases gradually
how deep the communication is
how many topics a person feels free to discuss
3 basic layers of self disclosure
superficial layer, social layer, core layer
how often people self disclose
how long people self disclose
frequent self disclosure can lead to
liking and relational development
self disclosures of limited frequency and long duration=
stranger on the plane example
positive or negative charge of self disclosure
how honest or deceptive self disclosure is
risks of self disclosure- we become
vulnerable to criticism
4 risks include
fear of exposure/ rejection, fear of retaliation/ angry response, fear of loss of control, fear of losing one's individualtiy
disclosure-liking hypothesis- when a sender discloses to a receiver,
the receiver will like the sender more
liking-disclosure hypothesis- people will disclose more to
people they like
when self disclosure violates normative expectations, it will
not lead to liking- too much disclosore too soon or negative disclosure
dyadic effect-
reciprocal disclosure= when a person reveals information and the partner responds with information that is a similar level of intimacy
people who violate norm of reciprocity are viewed as
cold, unfriendly, untrustworthy
recipricity= more relationship
social penetration theory- stages are (Altman and Taylor)
orientation, exploratory exchange, affective exchange, stable exchange
stages in Knapp and Vangelisti's model
initiating, experimenting, intensifying, integrating, and bonding
initiating stage=
orientation stage
initiating stage- ____ level of disclosure, ____ valence,
superficial, positive
experimenting stage=
exploratory affective exchange stage
experimenting stage- increasing _____ and ____ but low _____
breadth, frequency, depth
small talk- communication that is high in ____ but low in _____
breadth, depth
partners either trust each other and begin to disclose more _____ or terminate
intensifying stage=
affective exchange stage
intesifying stage- _____ self disclosure, long, in depth conversations, affectionate ___ _____, using ___ instead of ____, terms of endearment/ commitment
negative, nonverbals, we/ I
integrating stage=
stabe exchange stage
integrating stage- presenting themselves as a _____, complete each other's sentences, opinions may ______
couple, merge
stable exchange stage- people disclose openly about
complete self disclosure may not be possible/
bonding stage- partners declare committment ______, usually though
publicly, marriage
people do not always move through these stages in
orderly manner
First dates- in 19th century, courtship involved ____ inviting ____ to their homes
women, men
20th century, ____ began to replace _____
dating, calling
today, _____ in initiating position
when women initiate dates- more expectation for ___ ____, percieved to be ___ ___
sexual activity, less attractive
expectations and goals on first dates=
having fun, reducing uncertainty, investigating romantic potential, developing friendship, engaging in sexual activity
good date= when people have similar
cohabitation= optinal stage in courtship sequence, may or may not end in
relationship stability- marital relationships more stable than
selection effect- people who choose to cohabit rather than marry have characteristics that make it less likely for
relationship to last
couples who cohabit before marriage are more likely to
get divorced
relational quality- cohabiors who planned to get married were just as satisfied as
married couples
communication patterns- married couples reported
least conflict
cohabitors reported mroe
cohabiting can lead to good communication and high satisfaction when the couple plans to
turning point= any event or occurance associated with
change in the relationship
turning point approach- emphasizes events that have
the strongest effect on relationships
relationships are not linear, follow a ___ path
turning point analysis- map that depicts the ___ and ___ of a relationship
ups, downs
communication based turning points- get to know time= ____ interactions, quantity rather than quality of communication
quality communication- special times when two people have ___ ____ interaction, _____ and ____ conversation
high quality, long and intimate
turning point can be activity or ___ ____
special occassion
passionate events- include
first kiss, "I love you", sex
romantic relationship transitions- point in time when relationships transitions from ____ to _____
platonic, romantic
exclusivity- when people decide to date only
each other, drop other rivals
external competition- when a person feels threatened by a ___ ___ or _____
third party, activity that is taking partner's time
serious committment- events such as
moving in together, getting married
change in household configuration, new family members, and interference from a ____ ____ in friendships
romantic partner
set of turning points deals with proximity and distance= separation and
disengagement and conflict- includes a couple's first ___ ____, atempts to withdraw from the relationship, and break up
big fight
times of crisis- includes
illness, death, accidents, major financial problems
perceptual changes- include positive and negative psychic change- change in perception without
any real reason
CH. 6
Communicating closeness
level of closeness determined by ____, ____ and ___
physical closeness, emotional closeness, and relational closeness
physical closeness- amount of ____ ____ people have
physical contact
emotional closeness- sense of ____ _____and ____
shared experiences, caring
relational closeness- ____ people share
closeness is reflected in 3 types of communication=
affectionate communication, immediacy behavior, and social support
affectionate communication- behavior that portrays feelings of ______ and ____ _____
fondness, positive regard
paradox of affection- showing affection too early/ too much affection can
scare potential romantic partners away
Direct and verbal affectionate communicaiton includes
self disclosure, direct emotional expressions, compliments and praise, assurances
self disclosure- communicating _____ about
openly, one's feelings
direct emotional expression- phrases such as
I love you, you make me happy
compliments and praise- communictes ____ ____ for someone
positive regard
asurances- also called ____ _____, direct messages about ____ ______ in a relationship
relationship talk, commitment level
direct and nonverbal affectionate communication- includes
physical contact and distancing, eye behavior, vocalic behavior
social meaning model of nonverba communication- some nonverbal behaviors have strong ___ ____ across ____ ____
consentual meanings, different contexts
affectionate physcial contact= examples are
holding hands, hugging, kissing
eye behavior- eye contact can
promote affection
vocalic behavior- ____ ____ voice perceived to be more affection
higher pitched voice
indirect and nonverbal affectionate communication include
support behaviors, idiomatic behaviors
support behaviors- giving someone ___ or ____ _____
emotional, instrumental support
used more commonly in
male friendships, father son relationships
idiomatic behavior- have a ____ ____ only to
specific meaning, people in a particular relationship
affection exchange theory- based on the idea that affectionate communication is ____ ______ behavior because it helps obtain
biologically adaptive, resources
people who display affectionate communication more likely to be seen as having skills to be
a good parent= potential mate, reproductive capacity
people are motivated to show affection to serve two basic needs-
viability and fertility
viability- relates to motive to
fertility- relates to motive to
benefits of giving and recieving affection include
better mental health, less stress, better physical helath
more kissing in relationships=
less stress, more satisfaction
affectionate comm in families- naive theory of affection= adult children see affection as
a limited resource for which they compete
people show more affection when they share a ____ or _____ bond
genetic, sexual
immediacy behaviors- actions that ____ ____ and promote
signal warmth, promote involvement
also called
positive involvement behaviors
verbal immediacy- includes
word choice, forms of address, depth of disclosure, relationships indicators
word choice- saying ___ instead of ___
we, I
forms of address- ___ address, using _______
casua, nicknames
depth of disclosure- close relationsihps are characterized by ___ rather than ____ interactions
deep, superficial
relationship indicators- calling someone ______/ _____ or ____ _____
girlfriend, boyfriend, bestfriend
nonverbal immediacy- indicators include
oculesic behaviors, proxemics, haptics, kinesics, vocalics, chromenic behaviors
oculesics- high level of eye contact= ______ and _____
attentiveness, involvement
proxemics- the way people use _____ signals the level of closeness in a relationship
facing someone ______ is immediate
haptics- closest relationships= high level of
_____ and ______ are immediate
hugs, kisses
kinesics- body movements such as
smiling, noding, posture
_____ body positions are immediate
body synchrony- intimate couples show high levels of _______ _______
coordinated movement
vocalics- _______ ______ is immediate
baby talk
chronemics- the way people use
spending time with a person sends a message that the person is ________
cognitive valence theory- helps explain why people respond positively or negatively to increases in _______
cognitive valencers include=
culture, personality, the rewardingness of the partner, the relationship, the situation, temporary states
behavior- close relationships begin with one person increasingly
perception- behaviors must be ______ to be effective
arousal- immediacy behaviors are stimulating, increase ______ ______
physiological arousal
moderate arousal= ______, rapid arousal increases=_______
positive, negative
cognition- determinig if the increase in immediacy is appropriate based on the ____ ______
cognitive valencers
relational outcomes- negative valencing for any of the cogntive valencers can lead to
decreased relational closeness
comfort and social support- types include
invisible support, person centered messages, nonverbal immediacy,
invisible support phenomenon- support attempts that go unnoticed by recipients are
the most effective
practical support= giving
concrete advice
emotional support= helping partner
feel better
responsiveness- the degree to which a message communicates ____, _____ and ____ of one's partner
understanding, caring, validation
person centered messages- acknowledge and validate the ______ of the other person
nonverbal immediacy- has strong effect on ____ ______
comforting quality
examples are
hugs, close proxemic distance, facial expressions, pats, attentiveness
sex differences in expression of closeness- women are more -____ _____ than men
nonverbally immediate
women's relationships have more _____ _____ and ____ ___
emotional expression, self disclosure
expressive friendships- involve ____ ____ nonverbals and verbal comm, showing nonverbal affection
emotionally charged
agentic friendship- focus on _____ and ___ ____
companionship, shared activities
women would rather ____ ___, men would rather ___ _____
just talk, do things
preferences for cross-sex frienships= closing the gap between men and women's ____ _____
communication styles
internet relationships
romantic relationships developed on the internet form ___ ____ and develop ___ ____ than tradidional relationships
more easily, more rapidly
cyberspace couples have ______ frequency of comm than face to face couples
less of a ___ ____ than real space couples
linear form
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