Cognitive Psychology

Cognitive Psychology Flash Cards For The Key Terms Taught In Cognition by Mark H. Ashcraft  and Gabriel A. Radvansky (5th Edition). 
  
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Behaviourism
 
The scientific study of observable behaviour. The we are shaped by our environment and the behaviours we learn over hidden mental processes. John B. Watson was an avid supporter. This was the predominate school of American Psychology during 1910-1950.
Cognition
 
The collection of mental processes and activities used in perceiving, remembering, thinking, and understanding + the act of using those processes
Cognitive Science
 
the scientific study of thought, language and the brain.
Ecological Validity
 
making research relevant to real world situation in which people think and act.
Empiricism
 
The idea that observation is the basis for all science
Functionalism
 
William James: strongly influenced by the writings of Darwin.
Focus: on the functions of consciousness not its structure.
Introspection
 
A method where one look inward carefully inward, reporting on inner sensations and experiences.
Wilhem Wundt (1832-1920)
Memory
 
the mental process of acquiring and retaining information for later retrieval and the mental storage system which enables the process.
Refers to three activities:Initial acquisition/ earning or encoding Subsequent retention of information for later retrieval

Reductionism
 
Attempting to understand complex events by breaking them down into their components.
Structuralism
 
Edward Titchener
The first major movement or school of psychological thought. studied the structure of the concious mind, the sensations, images and feeling that were the very elements of the mind's structure.
Inspectors described the mental experience of certain stimulus through introspection and certain introspections were deemed wrong and the judge was Titchener himself.


Tabula Rasa
 
Aristotle's insistence that the mind was a "blank slate at birth".
Experience over inborn factors are paramount and are what write an record onto the blank slate.
Verbal Learning
 
an experimental psychology which dealt with humans as they learned verbal material composed of letters, nonsense syllables and sometimes words.

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