Classification / Clinical Characteristics Schizophrenia AQA PYAS4

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What are DSM -IVR and ICD
Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM) and Internal Classification of diseases (ICD). Ways of classifying mental illnesses including Sz.
DSM-IVR "positive symptoms"

Delusions:Bizarre beliefs that the patient thinks are real
Experiences of control: being controlled by an external force.
Hallucinations: unreal preceptions of the environment
Disordered thinking: Inserted/removed thoughts
DSM IVR "Negative Symtoms"

Affective Flattening: Reduction in emotions
Alogia: lessened speech
Avolition: lack of motivation
ISSUES AROUND CLASSIFICATION: a) Number of diagnostic tools b) Rosenhan (1973) Being sane in insane places

a)Number of diagnostic tools, same symptoms may be classified differently. (ICD DSM, St Louis criteria)
b)Different institutions gave same symptoms different diagnostics.
ISSUES AROUND CLASSIFICATION: c) Labelling. Scheff (1966) d) overlap with other disorders

c)Once labelled schizophrenic, people (incl. medics) behave differently towards them. Label may also cause development of other symptoms (live up to the label). Scheff 1966
d)Difficult to define boundary between disorders, similar symptoms displayed (E.g. similar to Bipolar disorder).
ISSUES AROUND CLASSIFICATION: e) Sub types of Schizophrenia
Used to give a more specific diagnosis (E.g. delusional Sz). May not fit into just one sub type. May be rediagnosed when other symptoms develop. Some question the validity of sub types.

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