Child Psychology Test 1

Child Psychology

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Side ASide B
What are fontanelles?
soft spots between plates of skull
What is the first cell division?
What is the scientific method and why is it important?
Strategy for understanding  natural world that involves acquiring information by making...
Developmental Phylogenesis
changes in a species behavior over the course of evolution
Develpmental ontogenesis
changes in individual's behavior over course of their lifetime
"Nature is our nurture"
Modifiable brain and long childhood are product of evolution- long childhood allows children...
What is a reciprocal interaction? What does it involve?
The child provides the structures of development, and the environment provides the functions.1....
What do species atypical experiences and environments help clearly illustrates about behavior?
Organisms are adaptive, behavior is functional
development does not occur in a straight line
Where is the genetic material located?
How many chromosome does a body cell contain?
23 pairs (46) chromosomes
Structure of DNA
Nucleotides (backbone) + base-pairs:Aderine - ThymineGuanine - cytosineGENE IS A SEGMENT OF...
How does DNA replicate?
DNA unzips and each single strand acts as a template. 
How do sex cells replicate?
Meiosis. Crossing over occurs, mixing up genetic material. New pairs divide into 2 daughter...
Mendelian genetics
Single gene inheritance
Recessive gene disorder
if inherits 2 recessive genes for disorder from parents, it will be expressed
Sex linked disorders
Recessive gene on X chromosome expressed b/c the Y chromosome is only 1/3 as long and lacks...
Polygenetic inheritance
Genetic influence on behavioral/psychological characteristics appears to be the result of many...
Development is product of reciprocal interactions between:
1. genetic/constitutional makeup2. past experiences (learning history)3. Current physicological...
Strengths/limitations of twin studies.
Similarities indicates genetic influences.But doesn't identify the important interaction between...
Rubber band model
Genes play a passive role.
Niche-Picking Model
Genetic influence increases with age. (environment becomes increasingly passive)Genes actively...
Bidirectional interactions model (Epigenetic)
Genes and environment are both always active
first 2 weeks. by 36 hrs first cell division. Enters uterine cavity, blastocyst. then implantation
Embryonic period
foundation for all internal and external structures formed. total mass has increased 2 million...
Fetal period
Period of growth/refinement. Dramatic growth. reflexes, brain cells, weight.
Effect of taratogens depend on...
Timing of exposure. Gets less sensitive with age.
sperm reaches egg in fallopian tube
First cell specialization
Monozygotic vs. Dizygotic twins
Monozytic = one sperm & one eggDizygotic = two sperm & two eggs
Non-genetic agents that can cause abnormal prenatal development. 
What are some common teratogens?
Infections, nutrition, illegal drugs, smoking, alcohol, paraental age.
What does timing have to do with teratogens?
effects of teratogens depend on the timing of exposure
Phases of Labor
Apgar exam
Primary physical/behavioral screen. 77% of newborns get 8-10.
Risk factors for developmental problems
Non facilitative Maternal and Family ChacteristicsPre-term and/or Low Birth WeightPoor performance...
Senses at birth
Touch: can feel painSmell: show facial expression to bad smells at birthTaste: 2 hrs old, prefer...
Why do they scan edges of high contrast areas?
Serves to strengthen connections between neurons in visual brain centers
when and why do babies develop a fear of heights?
about the time babies can crawl, the develop learned fear of heights
Infant reflexes
rooting reflexpalmar reflexmoro reflexstepping reflextonic neck reflex
What happens to reflexes as we get older?
disappear or elaborate oer first year of live
What are the three laws of developmental direction?
Cephalo-caudal (from head to toe)Proximal - distal (parts closes to body come under control...
What are the three main periods of brain develpment?
Cell (over) ProductionCell migrationCell elaboration
What part of the brain is most developed at birth and what does it do?
Brainstem and midbrainpeforms without conscious awareness - reflexes, states of alertness,...
Synaptic connections with age
"use them or lose them"
the scientific study of behavior and the relationship of that behavior to the environment in...
a dynamical process of adaptation to the environment in which learning plays an important rold...
locations along a chromosome that determine physi al or behavioral characterisitcs
an organisms interactions with the environment that produces ad etectable change
setting a child is put into
the reducing of a phenomenon to a lower level of analysis
analyzing at the scale that is most applicable for the area of study
Process involving the division of a cell into two new cells. Chromosomes are duplicated during...
The type of cell divisions that take place in reproductive organs and reduce by half the chromosome...
Dominant gene
term used to describe alleles that are stronger relative to other alleles and more likely to...
recessive gene
term used to describe an allele that is masks by a dominant allele. recessive alleles are expressed...
the actual expression of a genetic trait that results from genotype and environmental transacitons
one's actual genetic makeup
occurs when a characteristic or behavior is the result of many genes rather than a single gene
the stimulation of sensory receptors and their connections to meurons travelling to the sensory...
organized response to a stimulus. an integration response to a sensation that results in a...
relatinoship involving the eliciting of unconditioned response by an unconditioned stimulus

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