Child Psychology Test 1

62 cards

Child Psychology


 
  
Created Oct 6, 2010
by
bonnzzeye

 

 
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1
What are fontanelles?
 
soft spots between plates of skull
2
What is the first cell division?
 
Cleavage
3
What is the scientific method and why is it important?
 
Strategy for understanding  natural world that involves acquiring information by making...
4
Developmental Phylogenesis
 
changes in a species behavior over the course of evolution
5
Develpmental ontogenesis
 
changes in individual's behavior over course of their lifetime
6
"Nature is our nurture"
 
Modifiable brain and long childhood are product of evolution- long childhood allows children...
7
What is a reciprocal interaction? What does it involve?
 
The child provides the structures of development, and the environment provides the functions.1....
8
What do species atypical experiences and environments help clearly illustrates about behavior?
 
Organisms are adaptive, behavior is functional
9
nonlinear
 
development does not occur in a straight line
10
Where is the genetic material located?
 
Nucleas
11
How many chromosome does a body cell contain?
 
23 pairs (46) chromosomes
12
Structure of DNA
 
Nucleotides (backbone) + base-pairs:Aderine - ThymineGuanine - cytosine
GENE IS A SEGMENT...
13
How does DNA replicate?
 
DNA unzips and each single strand acts as a template. 
14
How do sex cells replicate?
 
Meiosis. Crossing over occurs, mixing up genetic material. New pairs divide into 2 daughter...
15
Mendelian genetics
 
Single gene inheritance
16
Recessive gene disorder
 
if inherits 2 recessive genes for disorder from parents, it will be expressed
17
Sex linked disorders
 
Recessive gene on X chromosome expressed b/c the Y chromosome is only 1/3 as long and lacks...
18
Polygenetic inheritance
 
Genetic influence on behavioral/psychological characteristics appears to be the result of many...
19
Development is product of reciprocal interactions between:
 
1. genetic/constitutional makeup2. past experiences (learning history)3. Current physicological...
20
Strengths/limitations of twin studies.
 
Similarities indicates genetic influences.
But doesn't identify the important interaction...
21
Rubber band model
 
Genes play a passive role.
22
Niche-Picking Model
 
Genetic influence increases with age. (environment becomes increasingly passive)Genes actively...
23
Bidirectional interactions model (Epigenetic)
 
Genes and environment are both always active
24
Zygote
 
first 2 weeks. by 36 hrs first cell division. Enters uterine cavity, blastocyst. then implantation
25
Embryonic period
 
foundation for all internal and external structures formed. total mass has increased 2 million...
26
Fetal period
 
Period of growth/refinement. Dramatic growth. reflexes, brain cells, weight.
27
Effect of taratogens depend on...
 
Timing of exposure. Gets less sensitive with age.
28
Conception
 
sperm reaches egg in fallopian tube
29
Blastocyst 
 
First cell specialization
30
Monozygotic vs. Dizygotic twins
 
Monozytic = one sperm & one eggDizygotic = two sperm & two eggs
31
Teratogens. 
 
Non-genetic agents that can cause abnormal prenatal development. 
32
What are some common teratogens?
 
Infections, nutrition, illegal drugs, smoking, alcohol, paraental age.
33
What does timing have to do with teratogens?
 
effects of teratogens depend on the timing of exposure
34
Phases of Labor
 
PreporationPushing+deliveryafterbirth
35
Apgar exam
 
Primary physical/behavioral screen. 77% of newborns get 8-10.
36
Risk factors for developmental problems
 
Non facilitative Maternal and Family ChacteristicsPre-term and/or Low Birth WeightPoor performance...
37
Senses at birth
 
Touch: can feel painSmell: show facial expression to bad smells at birthTaste: 2 hrs old, prefer...
38
Why do they scan edges of high contrast areas?
 
Serves to strengthen connections between neurons in visual brain centers
39
when and why do babies develop a fear of heights?
 
about the time babies can crawl, the develop learned fear of heights
40
Infant reflexes
 
rooting reflexpalmar reflexmoro reflexstepping reflextonic neck reflex
41
What happens to reflexes as we get older?
 
disappear or elaborate oer first year of live
42
What are the three laws of developmental direction?
 
Cephalo-caudal (from head to toe)Proximal - distal (parts closes to body come under control...
43
What are the three main periods of brain develpment?
 
Cell (over) ProductionCell migrationCell elaboration
44
What part of the brain is most developed at birth and what does it do?
 
Brainstem and midbrainpeforms without conscious awareness - reflexes, states of alertness,...
45
Synaptic connections with age
 
"use them or lose them"
46
Psychology
 
the scientific study of behavior and the relationship of that behavior to the environment in...
47
Development
 
a dynamical process of adaptation to the environment in which learning plays an important rold...
48
gene
 
locations along a chromosome that determine physi al or behavioral characterisitcs
49
behavior
 
an organisms interactions with the environment that produces ad etectable change
50
environment
 
setting a child is put into
51
reductionism
 
the reducing of a phenomenon to a lower level of analysis
52
Antireductionism
 
analyzing at the scale that is most applicable for the area of study
53
Mitosis
 
Process involving the division of a cell into two new cells. Chromosomes are duplicated during...
54
Meiosis
 
The type of cell divisions that take place in reproductive organs and reduce by half the chromosome...
55
Dominant gene
 
term used to describe alleles that are stronger relative to other alleles and more likely to...
56
recessive gene
 
term used to describe an allele that is masks by a dominant allele. recessive alleles are expressed...
57
phenotype
 
the actual expression of a genetic trait that results from genotype and environmental transacitons
58
Genotype
 
one's actual genetic makeup
59
polygenetic
 
occurs when a characteristic or behavior is the result of many genes rather than a single gene
60
sensation
 
the stimulation of sensory receptors and their connections to meurons travelling to the sensory...
61
Perceptionq
 
organized response to a stimulus. an integration response to a sensation that results in a...
62
reflex
 
relatinoship involving the eliciting of unconditioned response by an unconditioned stimulus

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