Chemical Kinetics, EQ, And Thermochemistry

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Chemical Kinetics, EQ, And Thermochemistry

General Chemi Stry Cha

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Name all the reaction orders
Zero order First order Second order Higher order Mixed order
Molarity mol solute/L of solution
Zero-Order reactions
has a constant rate, independent of the reactants concentration. r = k
What are the units of k?
Radioactive decay
[At] = [Ao] e-kt [Ao] is the initial concentration of A [At] is the concentration of A at time T k is the rate constant t is elapsed time
products < reactants
exothermic (-)
products > reactants
endothermic (+)
What are the factors affecting reaction rate?
reactant concentration temperature medium catalyst
Equilibrium Expression
Products / Reactants
What type of states don't appear in the equilibrium constant?
liquids and solids
Le Chatelier's principle
A system to which stress is applied tends to change to relieve the applied stress.
A + B ---> C + D <---- If more A is added
Then the equilibrium will switch to the right
Change in pressure and volume
Inverse to one another. If pressure increases, volume will decrease. If pressure or volume is increased the equilibrium will go to the least amount of moles.
Change in Temperature
In an exothermic reaction: If the temperature increases the EQ will go to the left. If the temperature decreases the EQ will go to the right.
Equation to determine the decay constant
t1/2 = 0.693 / k
What types of systems exist
isolate, closed, and open isolated- neither energy or matter can be exchanged closed- only energy can be exchanged open- everything can b exchanged
occurs when the temperature of the system remains constant
occurs when no heat exchange occurs
when the pressure of the system remains constant
Heat is measured in?
calories (cal) or Joules (J)
Measuring calorimetry or heat changes
q = mc(delta)T
delta H = H of products - H of reactants
Hess's Law
States that enthalpies of reactions are additive.
Entropy is the measure of?
Disorder or randomness. The greater the entropy the more disorder.
What's the second law of thermodynamics
all spontaneous process proceed such that the entropy of the system plus its surrounding increases
Gibbs Free Energy equation
deltaG = deltaH - TdeltaS
If delta G is negative
the reaction is spontaneous
delta H delta S - + + - + + - -
spontaneous all the time nonspontaneous all the time spontaneous at high T spontaneous at low T
ΔG₀ = - R·T·ln(Keq)
ΔG₀ + R·T·ln Q
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