Chemical Classification of Hormones

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chemical clas sificati


 
  
Created Dec 11, 2009
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dockdance14

 

 
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1
Endocrine System
 
-Endocrine glands (ductless) secrete hormones  
2
Hormones
 
intercellular chemical messengers that are secreted into the blood and each target cells thru...
3
Chemical classes of hormones
 
1. Amines   2. Proteins and Peptides   3. Steroids
4
Amines
 
-derivative of tyrosine   * Thyroid Hormones -T3 and T4 (secretes more T4, but T3 has...
5
Thyroid Gland
 
-anterior neck -circular arrangement of epithelial cells surround thyroid follicle; no blood...
6
Synthesis of T3 and T4 in Thyroid Gland
 
-Uptake of I- from blood and transport thru epithelial cells of thyroid follicles into follicular...
7
Storage of T3 and T4 in Thyroid Gland
 
-Thyroglobulin is the colloid in follicular lumen -Thyrogloblin = storage form of T3 and T4
8
Release of T3 and T4 from Thyroid Gland
 
-Endocytosis of thyroglobulin by thyroid follicular cells -Intracellular hydrolysis of thyroglobulin,...
9
Transport of T4 and T3 in Blood
 
-Binding to thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) -Most T3 and T4 in blood are in bound form -Only...
10
Intracellular Actions of T4 and T3 in Target Cells
 
-Carrier-mediated uptake of T3 and T4 into target cells -T4 converted to T3 by intracellular...
11
Actions of Thyroid Hormone on Target Tissues
 
-Target tissues = all tissues in body, except RBCs (no nucleus)   Actions: - stimulation...
12
Symptoms of Hypothyroidism
 
-Low BMR -Cold intolerance -Weight gain -Lethargy -Slow reflexes
13
Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism
 
-High BMR -Heat intolerance -Weight loss -Hyperactivity -Rapid reflexes
14
Catecholamines
 
Sources: Adrenal medulla- norepinephrine (20%) and epinephrine (80%) Hypothalamus- dopamine   -Transported...
15
Catecholamine Receptors
 
Types: -Adrenergic- NE and Epi -Dopaminergic- Dop   Location: plasma membrane   Receptors:...
16
Actions of NE and Epi
 
Heart: stim HR and force of contraction (CO, BP)   Vascular smooth muscle: stimulates...
17
Actions of Dopamine
 
Ant Pit Gland: inhibits prolaction secretion
18
Snthesis of proteins
 
Preprohormone Prohormone Hormone Hormone
19
Protein/Peptide hormones
 
-Most hormones -Hypothalamus: most -Post and Ant Pit: all -GI system: all -Pancreas: important...
20
Protein/Peptide Receptors
 
-Many types -Location: plasma membranes (polar) -Receptors: act as ion channels, enzymes,...
21
Steroid Hormones
 
-derived from cholesterol -highly nonpolar --> not stored
22
Adrenal Gland
 
Medulla = inner Cortex = outer   1. Zona Glomerulosa- aldosterone 2. Zona Fasiculata-...
23
Major Steroid Hormones of Adrenal Cortex
 
1. Corticosterone 2. Aldosterone 3. Cholesterol 4. Cortisol 5. Androgens = Dehydroepiandrosterone...
24
Types of Adrenocortical Steroids
 
1. Mineralcorticoids -Actions on renal handling of minerals (Na and K) -Aldosterone and Corticosterone   2....
25
Transport of Adrenal Corticosteroids in Blood
 
-Binding to corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) -Most in blood are bound -Only free form...
26
Intracellular Actions of Adrenal Corticosteroids in Target Cells
 
-Diffuse into target cells -Receptors for corticosteroids are intracellular -Hormone-receptor...
27
Actions of Normal Basal Concentrations of Cortisol on Target Tissues
 
-Permissive for catecholamine actions on vascular smooth muscle (bp) -Permissive for enzyme...
28
Actions of Stress Levels (Inc conc) of Cortisol on Target Tissues
 
-Enhanced vascular reactivity to catecholamines (bp) -Enhanced actions on metabolism to provide...
29
Gonadal Steroid Hormones
 
Males: Androgens    Testosterone   Females: Estrogens    Estradiol Progesterone   *estrogen...
30
Males
 
Testes = testosterone
31
Female
 
Ovaries = predominant steroid varies w/ phase of menstrual cycle Follicular phase (1st 2 wks)...
32
Transport of Gondal Steroids in Blood
 
-Binding to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) -Most are bound form -Free form is active
33
Intracellular Actions of Gonadal Steroids on Target Tissues
 
-Diffuse into target cells -Location = intracellular -Hormone-receptor complexes act as transcription...
34
Conversion of Gonadal Steroids to Active Forms in Some Target Cells in Male
 
Testosterone -> 5-alpha-Dihydrotestosterone   Testosterone -> Estradiol
35
Mechanism of Action of Hormones with Intracelullular Receptors
 
-Free hormone diffuses through cell (nonpolar) -Receptors in nucleus -Function as transcription...
36
Mechanism of Action of Hormones with Plasma Membrane Receptors
 
-Polar -Receptors on plasma membranes
37
Regulation of Hormone Receptors
 
-By natural hormonal ligands: up and down reg -By other hormones: permissive effects, whereby...
38
Permissive Action of Thyroid Hormone on Epinephrine-Induced Lipolysis
 
Thyroid hormone = little effect   Epinephrine = min effect   TH and Epi = large...


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