Chapters 4, 5, & 6: Psyc-2314 Human Growth And Development


First Three Years: Ch. 4 - Physical Development , Ch. 5 - Cognitive Development, Ch. 6 - Psychosocial Development II. Development From Conception Through Toddler Years 
  
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A. CONCEPTION AND PRENATAL STAGE--MAJOR CHALLENGES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
 
1. PHYSICAL CHANGES, PROCESSES, SKILLS, BEHAVIORS, EVENTS
a. normal conception and other alternate methods--successes and challenges
 
vaginal ,natural, home birth w/midwife, no drugs, lemaze method (breathing excercises w/massage visualization), doula; and experienced coach, mentor, and helper. cesarean (30%), prepared birth (99%) w/drugs (epidural, spinal injection 60%), general anesthetic, local (vaginal) anesthetic (pedunal block during 2nd stage of childbirth) due to complications such as breach, transverse, vaginal bleeding, heavy, premature, low birth weight babies, multiple births and older 1st time mothers. 3 stages of childbirth: 1st stage, 12-14hrs dilation of cervix, 2nd stage; 1-2hrs descent or emergence of baby if babies are in longer doctor can aid in getting baby out w/forceps or vacuum w/suction cup, 3rd stage; 10-60min placenta and umbilical cord expelled from mother. normal conception: 1 egg 1 sperm 1 child,1 egg 1 sperm 2 children (ID twins), 2 eggs 2 sperms 2 children (fraternal twins), 2 sperms 1 egg or 2 eggs 1 sperm 1 child (chimera). alternate methods: fertility drugs, artificial insemination, surrogate. successes: octomom, fraternal twins, normal child birth. challenges: age (menopause), disease, low sperm count.
b. stages of prenatal development--body systems, mechanisms, and responses
 
cephalocaudal principle growth occurs from the top to the bottom. proximodistal principle growth and motor development proceed from center of body outward
c. role of heredity and environment, and gender differences--physical structure and health; sex-linked disorders (e.g. color blindness and hemophilia)
 
intelligent, well educated parents may be more likely to provide a positive, stimulating home environment, their may be a genetic influence as well
2. CONGNITIVE CHANGES
 
PROCESSES, SKILLS, BEHAVIORS, EVENTS
a. stages of prenatal development--cognitive processes, mechanisms, and skills (e.g. ability to respond, learn, and remember)
 
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b. role of heredity and environment--cognitive processes, skills, and intelligence
 
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B. FIRST THREE (TODDLER) YEARS
 
MAJOR CHALLENGES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
1. PHYSICAL CHANGES
 
PROCESSES, SKILLS, BEHAVIORS, EVENTS
a. methods and stages of childbirth--impact on child and mother; assessment of health at birth
 
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b. premature and low birth weight infants--main characteristics, potential risks, stimulating development
 
5
c. development of brain and senses-- signs of growth; maturation; developmental sequence; most developed and least developed sense at birth; environmental and cultural influences
 
5
d. development of motor skill--signs of growth/maturation; crawling, walking, and their effects; environmental and cultural influences; relationship between perception and action (e.g. crawling and depth perception)
 
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e. appearance and overall physical growth--body proportions, speed and depth of growth; environmental and cultural influences
 
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f. states of arousal during infancy--cycles of wakefulness, sleep, and activity; degree of alertness; maturation and environmental influence
 
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2. COGNITIVE CHANGES
 
PROCESSES, SKILLS, BEHAVIORS, EVENTS
a. use of psychometric tests--strengths and limitations of measuring cognitive and intellectual functioning during infancy and toddler-hood
 
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b. pre-linguistic speech--babbling, cooing, and crying; different types of cries, their meaning, and best way to respond; first word, two word sentences; gestures; maturation and environmental influence
 
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c. behavior change (behavioral leaning approach--conditioning and imitation
 
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d. mend structures, activities, and adaptation to environment (piaget)--schema organization, adaptation, assimilation, accommodation, equilibration; object permanence, centration, egocentrism, imitation, use of symbols, causality; maturation and environmental influence
 
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e. substances of sensory-motor stage of cognitive development (Piaget)--primary, secondary, and tertiary circular reactions (relationship to assimilation and accommodation processes)
 
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f. information processing abilities and memory--habituation vs. dis-habituation, and attention recovery abilities; visual recognition memory; implicit memory explicit memory, and working memory; developmental sequence; maturation and environmental influence
 
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