Chapter Three: Essentials Of Medical Terminology

Chapter Three: Essentials Of Medical Terminology Medical Terminology Suffixes
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additional word parts
 
roots and prefixes used to build medical terms
acr/o
 
top; extremeties
carcin/o
 
cancer
don/o
 
donates
flour/o
 
luminous
glyc/o
 
sugar
pharmac/o
 
drug
physi/o
 
nature
practition/o
 
practice
sect/o
 
cut
suffixes used to indicate pathologic conditions, pathology means the study of disease processes
 
suffixes used to describe disease, symptoms, or abnormalities
-algia
 
pain
cepahl/o
 
head
cephalgia
 
headache
arthr/o
 
joint
arthralgia
 
joint pain
ot/o
 
ear
otalgia
 
earache
-cele
 
hernia (protrusion or displacement of an organ through a structure that normally contains it)
cyst/o
 
bladder
cystocele
 
hernia of the urinary bladder, protrusion of the bladder onto the vaginal walls
rect/o
 
rectum
rectocele
 
hernia of the rectum; protrusion of the rectum onto the vaginal wall
encephal/o
 
brain
encephalocele
 
hernia of the brain
-dynia
 
pain
gastr/o
 
stomach
gastrodynia
 
stomach pain
mast/o
 
breast
mastodynia
 
breast pain
-emesis
 
vomiting
hemat/o
 
blood
hematemesis
 
vomiting blood
-emia
 
blood condition
glyc/o
 
sugar
glycemia
 
sugar in the blood
-ia
 
state of; condition
pneum/o
 
lung
pneumonia
 
condition of the lung (most commonly known as an inflammation of the lung)
-itis
 
inflammation (the redness, swelling, heat, and pain that occur when the body protects itself from injury)
enter/o
 
small intestine
enteritis
 
inflamed small intestine
stomat/o
 
mouth
stomatitis
 
inflamed mouth
spondyl/o
 
vertebra
spondylitis
 
inflamed vertebra
-lysis
 
destruction; separation; breakdown
hem/o
 
blood
hemolysis
 
breakdown of blood
-malacia
 
softening
cerebr/o
 
brain
cerebromalacia
 
softening of the brain
chondr/o
 
cartilage
chondromalacia
 
softening of cartilage
-megaly
 
enlargement
viscer/o
 
internal organs
visceromegaly
 
enlargement of the internal organs
-oma
 
tumor/ mass
lip/o
 
fat
lipoma
 
tumor containing fat
my/o
 
muscle
myoma
 
tumor of muscle
-osis
 
abnormal condition
nephr/o
 
kidney
nephrosis
 
abnormal condition of the kidney
-pathy
 
disease process
ureter/o
 
ureter (a tube leading from each kidney)
ureteropathy
 
disease process of the ureter to the bladder for the passage of urine
-penia
 
decrease, deficiency
cyt/o
 
cell
cytopenia
 
deficiency of cells
-phobia
 
irrational fear
acr/o
 
top, extemeties
acrophobia
 
fear of heights
-ptosis
 
downward displacement; drooping; prolapse; sagging
blephar/o
 
eyelid
blepharoptosis
 
drooping eyelid
nephr/o
 
kidney
nephroptosis
 
drooping kidney
-ptysis
 
spitting
hemoptysis
 
spitting up blood
-rrhage; rrhagia
 
bursting forth
hem/o
 
blood
hemorrhage
 
bursting forth of blood/ bleeding
gastr/o
 
stomach
gastrorrhagia
 
bleeding from the stomach
-rrhea
 
flow; discharge
ot/o
 
ear
otorrhea
 
discharge from the ear
-rrhexis
 
rupture
splen/o
 
spleen
splenorrhexis
 
ruptured spleen
-sclerosis
 
hardening
arteri/o
 
artery
arteriosclerosis
 
hardening of the arteries
-spasm
 
sudden, involuntary contraction
blephar/o
 
eyelid
blepharospasm
 
sudden, involuntary contraction of the eyelid
-stenosis
 
narrowing; stricture
phleb/o
 
vein
phlebostenosis
 
narrowing of a vein
-y
 
process
neur/o
 
nerve
path/o
 
disease
neuropathy
 
disease process of the nerve
micro/
 
small
microencephaly
 
small brain
suffixes used to indicate diagnostic procedures
 
common suffixes associated with diagnostic procedures
-gram
 
record; writing
lymphangi/o
 
lymph
lymphangiogram
 
record of lymph vessel (by the use of x-rays)
-graph
 
instrument used to record
cardi/o
 
heart
cardiograph
 
instrument used to record heart activity
-graphy
 
process of recording; producing images
tom/o
 
to cut
computed tomography (CT scan)
 
x-ray beam rotates around the patient detailing the structure at various depths. The information is computer analyzed and converted to a picture of the body part. Common body parts studied in this fashion include the abdomen, kidneys, brain, and chest. NOTE: Another type of scan is the nuclear medicine scan. X-rays are no used as they are in CT scans. An image of a body organ is taken after a radioactive substance known as a tracer has been introduced in to the body. the tracer travels though the bloodstream to the body organ being studied, and gives off small amounts of radiation that are detected by a special camera called a gamma camera, which produces an image called a scan. Nuclear medicine scans are commonly of bone, brain, liver, lung, thyroid, and heart.
mamm/o
 
breast
mammography
 
producing images of the breast (by the use of x-rays)
myel/o
 
spinal cord
myelography
 
producing images of the spinal cord (by the use of x-rays)
-meter
 
instrument used to measure; process of measuring
crani/o
 
skull
craniometer
 
instrument used to measure the skull
-metry
 
to measure; measurement
pelv/i
 
pelvis
pelvimetry
 
measurement of the pelvis.NOTE: A pelvimetry is performed to confirm the size of the maternal pelvis in situations in which the pelvis is thought to be too small for the delivery of the baby.
-opsy
 
to view
bi/o
 
life
biopsy
 
a procedure involving the removal of a piece of living tissue, which is then microscopically examined for any abnormalities
-scope
 
instrument used to visually examine (a body cavity or organ)
bronch/o
 
bronchus
bronchoscope
 
instrument used to visually examine the interior of the bronchus
-scopy
 
process of visually examining (a body cavity or organ)
bronch/o
 
bronchus
bronchoscopy
 
process of visually examining the bronchus
fluor/o
 
luminous
fluoroscopy
 
x-ray of moving structures, such as the movement of substances through the digestive tractNOTE: In this term, -scopy does not mean the process of visually examining a body cavity or organ. A fluoroscopy produces an image of a structure on a fluorescent screen rather than on a single x-ray film. This procedure has the advantage of allowing observation of structures as they move.
suffixes used to indicate surgical procedures
 
common suffixes associated with surgical procedures
-centesis
 
surgical puncture to remove fluid
abdomin/o
 
abdomen
abdominocentesis
 
surgical puncture to remove fluid from the abdomen
thorac/o
 
chest
thracocentesis
 
surgical puncture of the chest wall to remove excess fluid from around the lungs
-desis
 
surgical binding; surgical fusion
arthr/o
 
joint
arthrodesis
 
surgical fusion of joint 
-ectomy
 
excision; surgical removal
oophor/o
 
ovary
oophorectomy
 
excision of the ovary
tonsill/o
 
tonsils
tonsillectomy
 
excision of the tonsils
-pexy
 
surgical fixation
nephr/o
 
kidney
nephropexy
 
surgical fixation of a kidney
-plasty
 
surgical reconstruction; surgical repair
orchid/o
 
testicle
orchidoplasty
 
surgical reconstruction of the testicle
-rrhaphy
 
suture; sew
colp/o
 
vagina
colporrhaphy
 
suturing of the vagina
-stasis
 
stoppage; stopping; controlling
hem/o
 
blood
hemostasis
 
stoppage of blood
-stomy
 
new opening; artificial opening
trache/o
 
trachea; windpipe
tracheostomy
 
new opening into the trachea
-tome
 
instrument used to cut 
my/o
 
muscle
myotome
 
instrument used to cut muscle
-tomy
 
process of cutting; incision
ten/o
 
tendon
tenotomy
 
process of cutting a tendon
general suffixes
 
general suffixes needed to know to understand a great number of medical terms
-cyte
 
cell
adip/o
 
fat
adipocyte
 
fat cell
histi/o; hist/o
 
tissue
histiocyte; histocyte
 
tissue cell
-er; -ician; -logist; -ist
 
specialist; one who specializes; specialist in the study of 
practition/o
 
practice
practitioner
 
one who has obtained the proper requirements to work in a specific field of study
physi/o
 
nature
physician
 
specialist in the study of medicine who has graduated from a recognized school of medicine and is licensed by the appropriate authority to practice
neur/o
 
nerve
neurologist
 
specialist in the study of the nervous system and its disorders
pharmac/o
 
drug
pharmacist
 
specialist licensed to prepare and dispense drugs
-ion
 
process
sect/o
 
to cut
section
 
process of cutting
-logy
 
study of; process of study
hepat/o
 
liver
hepatology
 
study of the liver
physi/o
 
nature
physiology
 
study of function (the study of how a structure functions)
-or
 
one who; person or thing that does something
don/o
 
donate
organ donor
 
one who donates organ tissue to be used in another body
-plasia
 
formation; developement
chondr/o
 
cartilage
chondroplasia
 
formation of cartilage
-poiesis
 
production; manufacture; formation
hemat/o
 
blood
hematopoiesis
 
production of blood
adjectival suffixes
 
adjectival suffixes describe special qualities or relationships
-genic
 
produced by; producing
carcin/o
 
cancer
carcinogenic
 
producing cancer (agent that produces cancer)
-oid
 
resembling
oste/o
 
bone
osteoid
 
resembling bone
-ole; -ule
 
small
bronchi/o
 
bronchus
bronchiole
 
small bronchus
ven/o
 
vein
venule
 
small vein
-ac; -al; -ary; -eal; -ic; -ous
 
pertaining to
cardi/o
 
heart
cardiac
 
pertaining to the heart
ren/o
 
kidney
renal
 
pertaining to the kidney
mamm/o
 
breast
mammary
 
pertaining to the breast
pharyng/o
 
throat; pharynx
pharyngeal
 
pertaining to the throat
gastr/o
 
stomach
gastric
 
pertaining to the stomach
ven/o
 
vein
venous
 
pertaining to a vien
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