Chapter Four: Essentials of Medical Terminology Prefixes

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Medical Terminology Prefixes


 
  
Created Jun 18, 2010
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panfilo42

 

 
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1
ADDITIONAL WORD PARTS
 
ROOTS AND SUFFIXES USED TO BUILD MEDICAL TERMS
2
ROOT
 
MEANING
3
cellul/o
 
cell
4
cis/o
 
 to cut
5
comat/o
 
deep sleep
6
digest/o
 
digestion
7
duct/o
 
to draw
8
later/o
 
side/ lateral
9
nat/o
 
birth
10
sept/o
 
infection
11
son/o
 
sound
12
SUFFIX
 
MEANING
13
-aise
 
ease
14
-ar
 
pertaining to 
15
-cuspid
 
projection; cusps
16
-drome
 
to run
17
-form
 
shape; form
18
-genous
 
produced by
19
-gnosis
 
knowledge
20
-mortem
 
death
21
-plasm
 
development; formation
22
-plegia
 
paralysis
23
version
 
turning; tilting
24
PREFIXES REFERRING TO DIRECTION AND POSITION
 
THE FOLLOWING PREFIXES TELL US WHICH DIRECTION, WHERE, WHEN, AND HOW MUCH
25
ab- 
 
away from
26
-ion
 
process
27
duct/o
 
to draw
28
abduction
 
process of drawing away from
29
ad-
 
toward
30
-ion
 
process
31
duct/o
 
to draw
32
adduction
 
process of drawing toward
33
ante-
 
before
34
-al
 
pertaining to 
35
nat/o
 
birth
36
antenatal
 
pertaining to before birth, referring to the fetus; prenatal NOTE: Fetus is the name given...
37
circum-
 
around
38
-ion
 
process
39
duct/o
 
 to draw
40
circumduction
 
process of drawing a part in a circular motion
41
dia-
 
-meter
42
diameter
 
measurement from edge to edge of a circle NOTE: In this word, the suffix -meter means measurement...
43
-gnosis
 
knowledge
44
diagnosis
 
one disease is different from another disease after complete knowledge of the disease is obtained...
45
ecto-
 
outside
46
-genous
 
produced by; produced from
47
ectogenous
 
produced from the outside; infection that originates from the outside
48
endo-
 
within
49
-scope
 
instrument used to visually examine a body cavity or organ
50
endoscope
 
instrument used to visually examine a body cavity or organ NOTE: Endoscopes are named after...
51
epi-
 
upon; on; above
52
-ic
 
pertaining to 
53
gastr/o
 
stomach
54
epigastric
 
pertaining to upon the stomach
55
e-; ex-; exo-; extra-
 
out; outward; outside
56
-version
 
process of turning
57
eversion
 
process of turning out, as in the turning of the sole of the foot outward 
58
-ion
 
process
59
cis/o
 
cut
60
excision
 
process of cutting out
61
-ar
 
pertaining to 
62
ocul/o
 
eye
63
extraocular
 
pertaining to outside the eye
64
hyper-
 
excessive; above
65
-plasia
 
formation; development
66
hyperplasia
 
excessive formation; increase in the number of normal cells
67
hypo-
 
below; under; deficient
68
-ic
 
pertaining to 
69
gastr/o
 
stomach
70
hypogastric
 
pertaining to below the stomach
71
in-
 
in; into
72
-ion
 
process
73
cis/o
 
to cut
74
incision
 
process of cutting into NOTE: Types of incisions include (A) Mc Burney, over the appendix;...
75
-version
 
process of turning
76
inversion
 
process of turning in, as in the turning of the sold of the foot inward 
77
infra-
 
below; beneath
78
-al
 
pertaining to 
79
cost/o
 
rib
80
infracostal
 
pertaining to below the ribs
81
inter-
 
between
82
-ar
 
pertaining to 
83
cellul/o
 
cell
84
intercellular
 
pertaining to between the cells
85
intra-
 
within
86
-al
 
pertaining to 
87
crani/o
 
skull
88
intracranial
 
pertaining to within the skull
89
meta-
 
beyond
90
-plasia
 
formation; development
91
metaplasia
 
change in formation
92
-stasis
 
stopping; controlling
93
metastasis
 
the uncontrolled spread of cancerous cells from one organ to another NOTE: A malignant tumor...
94
para-
 
beside; near
95
-al
 
pertaining to 
96
nas/o
 
nose
97
paranasal
 
pertaining to near the nose
98
per-
 
through
99
-ous
 
pertaining to
100
cutane/o
 
skin
101
percutaneous
 
pertaining to through the skin
102
peri-
 
around
103
-itis
 
inflammation
104
neur/o
 
nerve
105
perineuritis
 
inflammation around a nerve
106
post-
 
after
107
-mortem
 
death
108
postmortem
 
after death
109
pre-
 
before; in front of 
110
-al
 
pertaining to 
111
nat/o
 
birth
112
prenatal
 
pertaining to before birth, referring to the fetus
113
pro-
 
before
114
-drome
 
to run
115
prodrome
 
symptom or symptoms occurring before the onset of disease.  For example, chest pain, tiredness,...
116
-gnosis
 
knowledge
117
prognosis
 
prediction or forecast of the outcome of the disease
118
retro-
 
back; behind
119
-version
 
process of turning
120
retroversion
 
backward turning or tipping of an organ
121
sub-
 
under; below
122
-ous 
 
pertaining to 
123
cutane/o
 
skin
124
subcutaneous
 
pertaining to under the skin; for example subcutaneous fat
125
-al
 
pertaining to 
126
lingu/o
 
tongue
127
sublingual
 
pertaining to under the tongue
128
supra-
 
above
129
-al
 
pertaining to 
130
ren/o
 
kidney
131
suprarenal
 
pertaining to above the kidney
132
trans-
 
across
133
-ion
 
process
134
sect/o
 
cut
135
transection
 
process of cutting across
136
ultra-
 
beyond
137
-graphy
 
process of recording
138
son/o
 
sound
139
ultrasonography
 
process of recording an image of internal structures by using high frequency sound waves; also...
140
NEGATIVE PREFIXES
 
PREFIXES THAT MEAN AGAINST, NOT, OR LACKING
141
anti-
 
against
142
-tic
 
pertaining to 
143
bi/o
 
life
144
antibiotic
 
drug used to kill harmful bacteria
145
a-; an-
 
no; not; lack of 
146
-ic
 
pertaining to 
147
sept/o
 
infection
148
aseptic
 
free from infectious material
149
-emia
 
blood condition
150
anemia
 
lack of red blood cells (RBC's); lack of hemoglobin (Hgb)
151
contra-
 
against; opposite
152
-al 
 
pertaining to 
153
later/o
 
side
154
contralateral
 
pertaining to the opposite side
155
in-
 
not
156
-ible
 
able to be; tending to 
157
digest/o
 
digestion
158
indigestible
 
not capable of being digested
159
PREFIXES REFERRING TO NUMBERS
 
PREFIXES THAT TELL US HOW MANY
160
bi-; di-
 
two
161
-al
 
pertaining to 
162
later/o
 
side
163
bilateral
 
pertaining to two sides
164
-ion
 
pertaining to 
165
sect/o
 
to cut
166
dissection
 
to cut into two pieces 
167
hemi-; semi-
 
half
168
-ectomy
 
excision
169
gastr/o
 
stomach
170
hemigastrectomy
 
excision of half the stomach
171
semi-
 
half
172
comat/o
 
deep sleep
173
semicomatose
 
state of unconsciousness from which the patient may be aroused
174
mono-; uni-
 
one
175
-cyte
 
cell
176
monocyte
 
blood cell with a single nucleus 
177
-al
 
pertaining to 
178
later/o
 
side
179
unilateral
 
pertaining to one side
180
multi-; poly-
 
many
181
-form
 
shape; form
182
multiform
 
having many shapes
183
-oma
 
tumor
184
aden/o
 
gland
185
polyadenoma
 
tumor of many glands
186
quadri- 
 
four
187
-al
 
pertaining to 
188
later/o
 
side
189
quadrilateral
 
pertaining to four sides
190
tri-
 
three
191
-cuspid
 
projection; cusp
192
tricuspid
 
three cusps or projections NOTE: The tricuspids or molars are teeth with three projections...
193
MISCELLANEOUS PREFIXES
 
PREFIXES THAT TELL US VARIOUS QUALITIES
194
ana-
 
apart; up
195
-tomy
 
process of cutting; to cut
196
anatomy
 
the study of the structure of the body NOTE: This term is derived from the fact that, to study...
197
auto-
 
self
198
-opsy
 
to view
199
autopsy
 
internal and external examination of the body after death to determine the cause of death;...
200
brady-
 
slow
201
-ia
 
state of; condition
202
cardi/o
 
 heart
203
bradycardia
 
pertaining to a slow heartbeat
204
dys-
 
bad; abnormal; difficult; painful
205
-plasia
 
development; formation
206
dysplasia
 
abnormal development
207
macro-
 
large
208
-ia
 
state of; condition
209
cephal/o
 
head
210
macrocephalia
 
excessively large head
211
mal-
 
bad
212
-aise
 
ease
213
malaise
 
a feeling of uneasiness or discomfort; a sign of illness
214
micro
 
small
215
-scope
 
instrument used to visually examine
216
microscope
 
instrument used to visually examine very small objects
217
neo-
 
new
218
-plasm
 
development; formation
219
neoplasm
 
new formation of tissue such as an abnormal growth or tumor
220
pan-
 
all 
221
-ectomy
 
excision; surgical removal
222
hyster/o
 
uterus
223
panhysterectomy
 
excision of all the uterus
224
syn-; sym-
 
together; with; joined
225
-tic
 
pertaining to 
226
arthr/o
 
joint
227
synarthrotic
 
a type of joint in which the bones are joined
228
-metry
 
process of measuring
229
symmetry
 
like parts on opposite sides of the body are similar in form, size, and position
230
tachy-
 
fast; rapid
231
-ia
 
condition
232
cardi/o
 
heart
233
tachycardia
 
pertaining to fast heartbeat of over 100 beats per minute
234
tetra-
 
four
235
-plegia
 
paralysis
236
tetraplegia
 
paralysis of all four limbs; also known as quadriplegia
237
SUMMARY OF PREFIXES THAT HAVE THE SAME MEANING
 
PREFIXES THAT MEAN THE SAME THING
238
MEANING
 
PREFIX
239
above
 
epi-; hyper-; supra-
240
against
 
anti-; contra-
241
around
 
circum-; peri-
242
bad
 
dys-; mal-
243
before
 
ante-; pre-; pro-
244
below
 
hypo-; infra-; sub-
245
half
 
hemi-; semi-
246
many
 
multi-; poly-
247
one
 
mono-; uni-;
248
outside
 
e-; ex-; extra-; ecto-; exo-
249
within
 
endo-; intra-
250
SUMMARY OF PREFIXES THAT HAVE THE OPPOSITE MEANING
 
PREFIXES THAT MEAN EXACTLY THE OPPOSITE OF EACH OTHER
251
MEANING
 
PREFIX
252
away from
 
ab-
253
toward
 
ad-
254
before
 
ante-; pre-; pro-
255
after
 
post
256
above
 
epi-; hyper-; supra
257
below
 
hypo-; infra-; sub-
258
fast
 
tachy-
259
slow
 
brady-
260
excessive
 
hyper-
261
deficient
 
hypo-
262
large
 
macro-
263
small
 
micro-
264
apart
 
ana-
265
together; with; joined
 
syn-


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