Chapter 9 A&P: Articulations

59 cards

Chapter 9 anatomy and physiology on articulations


 
  
Created Mar 18, 2009
by
lakenhensley

 

 
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1
articulations
 
joints where two bones interconnect
2
List the 4 classifications of joints.
 
1. Range of motion 2. Synarthrosis 3. Amphiarthrosis 4. Diarthrosis or synovial joint
3
Synarthrosis
 
immovable joints
4
Type of synarthritic joints.
 
Sutures, gomphosis (teeth), synchondrosis (bones tightly fused with cartilage), synostosis...
5
Amphiarthrosis
 
slightly moveable (amphi - both, amphibians, slightly land and water)
6
Types of amphiarthritic joints
 
Syndesmosis (bones joined by ligament) and symphysis (pubic symphysis)
7
Diarthrosis
 
freely moveable joints
8
Type of diarthritic joint
 
Synovial joint (shoulder, phalanges)
9
Diarthrosis constains ________ fluid, which fills the joint.
 
synovial = Synovial joint is a type of diarthritic joint, so diarthrosis contains synovial...
10
Excess synovial fluid is calls what?
 
water on the knee
11
Three types of "axial" diarthritic joints
 
monaxial, biaxial, triaxial - mon, bi, and tri describe the number of planes they move on
12
Synovial fluid
 
resembles interstitial fluid, thick, viscous solution
13
Functions of synovial fluid
 
Lubrication, nutrient distribution, shock absorption
14
Accessory structures of joint
 
meniscus, fat pads, ligaments, tendons
15
Factors that stabilize joints (discussion question)
 
The greater the range of motion of a joint, the weaker it becomes; Strongest joints permit...
16
Factors responsible FOR stablizing joints (discussion question)
 
1. Presence of collagen fibers 2. The shapes of the articulating surfaces 3. The presence...
17
Patterns of stabilizing structures varies amoung joints
 
Elbow, dislocation, subluxation
18
Dislocation
 
displacement of a body part
19
Subluxation
 
a partial dislocation or misalignment
20
Flexion
 
bending, decrease angle
21
Extension
 
extending, straightening, increase angle
22
Hyperextension
 
the extension of a part of the body beyond normal limits - tendons or ligaments can tear
23
Adduction (DD)
 
To draw inward toward the median axis of the body or toward an adjacent part or limb (ADD...
24
Abduction (BD)
 
To draw away from the midline of the body or from an adjacent part or limb (AB away)
25
Circumduction
 
Spin around - The circular movement of a limb such that the distal end of the limb delineates...
26
Supination
 
rotation of the hand or forearm so that the palmar surface is facing upward (SUP=UP)
27
Protation
 
rotation of the hand or forearm so that the surface of the palm is facing downward or toward...
28
Injury to ligaments
 
Sprain (g - p) = hyperextended, torn ligament
29
Injury to muscles and tendons
 
Strain (St - tendons) = microtears
30
Eversion
 
a turning or being turned outward or inside out (eversion of eyelid)
31
Inversion
 
the turning inward of a part, as the foot
32
Dorsiflexion
 
flexion toward the back; especially : flexion of the foot in an upward direction
33
Plantar flexion
 
movement of the foot that flexes the foot or toes downward toward the sole
34
Opposition
 
A characteristic movement of the primate thumb, in which the pad of the thumb can be placed...
35
Retraction
 
an act or instance of retracting (draw back or in); specifically : backward or inward movement...
36
Protraction
 
the act of moving an anatomical part forward : the state of being protracted; especially :...
37
Depression
 
a displacement downward or inward
38
Elevation
 
move or raise to a higher place or position; lift up (shoulders)
39
Lateral flexion
 
Flexion in the direction away from, or farther from, a midline (tilt head side to side)
40
List the classifications of synovial joints
 
Gliding, hinge, pivot, ellipsoidal, saddle, ball and socket
41
Gliding joint
 
Movement: slight nonaxial or multiaxial Ex.: Acromioclavicular and claviculosternal joints/...
42
Hinge joint
 
Movement: Monaxial Ex: Elbow, knee, ankle, interphalangeal joints
43
Pivot joint
 
Movement: monaxial (rotation) Ex: atlas/axis, proximal radioulnar joint
44
Ellipsoidal joint
 
Movement: biaxial Ex: radiocarpal joint
45
Saddle joint
 
Movement: biaxial Ex: First carpometacarpal joint
46
Ball and socket joint
 
Movement: triaxial Ex: shoulder and hip joint
47
Intervertebral articulation
 
Articulations between superior and inferior articular processes of adjacent vertebrae are gliding...
48
What are the movements that can occur across the intervertebral joints of the vertebral column?
 
Flexion, extension, lateral flexion, rotation
49
Which joint permits the greatest range of motion?
 
Shoulder joint (ball and socket joint)
50
Describe the elbow joint.
 
Complex hinge joint, works like a door hinge
51
Why is the elbow joint stable?
 
1. Bony surfaces of the humerus and ulna interlock 2. Articular capsule is very thick 3. Capsule...
52
Describe the hip joint.
 
1. Sturdy ball and socket joint 2. Capable of flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, circumduction,...
53
Describe the knee joint.
 
1. Transfers weight from the femur to the tibia 2. Hinge joint 3. Permits flexion, extension,...
54
Rheumatism (Aging and articulations)
 
any disorder of the extremities or back, characterized by pain and stiffness
55
Arthritis (Aging and articulations)
 
acute or chronic inflammation of a joint, often accompanied by pain and structural changes...
56
Osteoarthritis (Aging and articulations)
 
the most common form of arthritis, marked by chronic breakdown of cartilage in the joints leading...
57
Rheumatoid arthritis (Aging and articulations)
 
a chronic autoimmune DISEASE characterized by inflammation of the joints, frequently accompanied...
58
Gouty arthritis (Aging and articulations)
 
a painful inflammation of the big toe and foot caused by defects in uric acid metabolism
59
meniscus
 
a disk of cartilage between the articulating ends of the bones in a joint


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