Chapter 9 A&P: Articulations

Chapter 9 Anatomy And Physiology On Articulations
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Front Back
joints where two bones interconnect
List the 4 classifications of joints.
1. Range of motion 2. Synarthrosis 3. Amphiarthrosis 4. Diarthrosis or synovial joint
immovable joints
Type of synarthritic joints.
Sutures, gomphosis (teeth), synchondrosis (bones tightly fused with cartilage), synostosis (bones fused with bones)
slightly moveable (amphi - both, amphibians, slightly land and water)
Types of amphiarthritic joints
Syndesmosis (bones joined by ligament) and symphysis (pubic symphysis)
freely moveable joints
Type of diarthritic joint
Synovial joint (shoulder, phalanges)
Diarthrosis constains ________ fluid, which fills the joint.
synovial = Synovial joint is a type of diarthritic joint, so diarthrosis contains synovial fluid
Excess synovial fluid is calls what?
water on the knee
Three types of "axial" diarthritic joints
monaxial, biaxial, triaxial - mon, bi, and tri describe the number of planes they move on
Synovial fluid
resembles interstitial fluid, thick, viscous solution
Functions of synovial fluid
Lubrication, nutrient distribution, shock absorption
Accessory structures of joint
meniscus, fat pads, ligaments, tendons
Factors that stabilize joints (discussion question)
The greater the range of motion of a joint, the weaker it becomes; Strongest joints permit no movement
Factors responsible FOR stablizing joints (discussion question)
1. Presence of collagen fibers 2. The shapes of the articulating surfaces 3. The presence of other bones 4. Tension in tendons
Patterns of stabilizing structures varies amoung joints
Elbow, dislocation, subluxation
displacement of a body part
a partial dislocation or misalignment
bending, decrease angle
extending, straightening, increase angle
the extension of a part of the body beyond normal limits - tendons or ligaments can tear
Adduction (DD)
To draw inward toward the median axis of the body or toward an adjacent part or limb (ADD inward)
Abduction (BD)
To draw away from the midline of the body or from an adjacent part or limb (AB away)
Spin around - The circular movement of a limb such that the distal end of the limb delineates an arc
rotation of the hand or forearm so that the palmar surface is facing upward (SUP=UP)
rotation of the hand or forearm so that the surface of the palm is facing downward or toward the back
Injury to ligaments
Sprain (g - p) = hyperextended, torn ligament
Injury to muscles and tendons
Strain (St - tendons) = microtears
a turning or being turned outward or inside out (eversion of eyelid)
the turning inward of a part, as the foot
flexion toward the back; especially : flexion of the foot in an upward direction
Plantar flexion
movement of the foot that flexes the foot or toes downward toward the sole
A characteristic movement of the primate thumb, in which the pad of the thumb can be placed in contact with the pads of the fingers of the same hand (opposable thumb)
an act or instance of retracting (draw back or in); specifically : backward or inward movement of an organ or part (retractable claws)
the act of moving an anatomical part forward : the state of being protracted; especially : protrusion of the jaws
a displacement downward or inward
move or raise to a higher place or position; lift up (shoulders)
Lateral flexion
Flexion in the direction away from, or farther from, a midline (tilt head side to side)
List the classifications of synovial joints
Gliding, hinge, pivot, ellipsoidal, saddle, ball and socket
Gliding joint
Movement: slight nonaxial or multiaxial Ex.: Acromioclavicular and claviculosternal joints/ Vertebrocostal joints
Hinge joint
Movement: Monaxial Ex: Elbow, knee, ankle, interphalangeal joints
Pivot joint
Movement: monaxial (rotation) Ex: atlas/axis, proximal radioulnar joint
Ellipsoidal joint
Movement: biaxial Ex: radiocarpal joint
Saddle joint
Movement: biaxial Ex: First carpometacarpal joint
Ball and socket joint
Movement: triaxial Ex: shoulder and hip joint
Intervertebral articulation
Articulations between superior and inferior articular processes of adjacent vertebrae are gliding joints
What are the movements that can occur across the intervertebral joints of the vertebral column?
Flexion, extension, lateral flexion, rotation
Which joint permits the greatest range of motion?
Shoulder joint (ball and socket joint)
Describe the elbow joint.
Complex hinge joint, works like a door hinge
Why is the elbow joint stable?
1. Bony surfaces of the humerus and ulna interlock 2. Articular capsule is very thick 3. Capsule is reinforced by strong ligaments
Describe the hip joint.
1. Sturdy ball and socket joint 2. Capable of flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, circumduction, and rotation 3. Very stable joint
Describe the knee joint.
1. Transfers weight from the femur to the tibia 2. Hinge joint 3. Permits flexion, extension, and limited rotation
Rheumatism (Aging and articulations)
any disorder of the extremities or back, characterized by pain and stiffness
Arthritis (Aging and articulations)
acute or chronic inflammation of a joint, often accompanied by pain and structural changes and having diverse causes, as infection, or injury
Osteoarthritis (Aging and articulations)
the most common form of arthritis, marked by chronic breakdown of cartilage in the joints leading to pain, stiffness, and swelling
Rheumatoid arthritis (Aging and articulations)
a chronic autoimmune DISEASE characterized by inflammation of the joints, frequently accompanied by marked deformities
Gouty arthritis (Aging and articulations)
a painful inflammation of the big toe and foot caused by defects in uric acid metabolism
a disk of cartilage between the articulating ends of the bones in a joint
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