Chapter 9 A&P: Articulations

Chapter 9 Anatomy And Physiology On Articulations
 
Created Mar 18, 2009
by lakenhensley
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Side ASide B
articulations
joints where two bones interconnect
List the 4 classifications of joints.
1. Range of motion 2. Synarthrosis 3. Amphiarthrosis 4. Diarthrosis or synovial joint
Synarthrosis
immovable joints
Type of synarthritic joints.
Sutures, gomphosis (teeth), synchondrosis (bones tightly fused with cartilage), synostosis...
Amphiarthrosis
slightly moveable (amphi - both, amphibians, slightly land and water)
Types of amphiarthritic joints
Syndesmosis (bones joined by ligament) and symphysis (pubic symphysis)
Diarthrosis
freely moveable joints
Type of diarthritic joint
Synovial joint (shoulder, phalanges)
Diarthrosis constains ________ fluid, which fills the joint.
synovial = Synovial joint is a type of diarthritic joint, so diarthrosis contains synovial...
Excess synovial fluid is calls what?
water on the knee
Three types of "axial" diarthritic joints
monaxial, biaxial, triaxial - mon, bi, and tri describe the number of planes they move on
Synovial fluid
resembles interstitial fluid, thick, viscous solution
Functions of synovial fluid
Lubrication, nutrient distribution, shock absorption
Accessory structures of joint
meniscus, fat pads, ligaments, tendons
Factors that stabilize joints (discussion question)
The greater the range of motion of a joint, the weaker it becomes; Strongest joints permit...
Factors responsible FOR stablizing joints (discussion question)
1. Presence of collagen fibers 2. The shapes of the articulating surfaces 3. The presence...
Patterns of stabilizing structures varies amoung joints
Elbow, dislocation, subluxation
Dislocation
displacement of a body part
Subluxation
a partial dislocation or misalignment
Flexion
bending, decrease angle
Extension
extending, straightening, increase angle
Hyperextension
the extension of a part of the body beyond normal limits - tendons or ligaments can tear
Adduction (DD)
To draw inward toward the median axis of the body or toward an adjacent part or limb (ADD...
Abduction (BD)
To draw away from the midline of the body or from an adjacent part or limb (AB away)
Circumduction
Spin around - The circular movement of a limb such that the distal end of the limb delineates...
Supination
rotation of the hand or forearm so that the palmar surface is facing upward (SUP=UP)
Protation
rotation of the hand or forearm so that the surface of the palm is facing downward or toward...
Injury to ligaments
Sprain (g - p) = hyperextended, torn ligament
Injury to muscles and tendons
Strain (St - tendons) = microtears
Eversion
a turning or being turned outward or inside out (eversion of eyelid)
Inversion
the turning inward of a part, as the foot
Dorsiflexion
flexion toward the back; especially : flexion of the foot in an upward direction
Plantar flexion
movement of the foot that flexes the foot or toes downward toward the sole
Opposition
A characteristic movement of the primate thumb, in which the pad of the thumb can be placed...
Retraction
an act or instance of retracting (draw back or in); specifically : backward or inward movement...
Protraction
the act of moving an anatomical part forward : the state of being protracted; especially :...
Depression
a displacement downward or inward
Elevation
move or raise to a higher place or position; lift up (shoulders)
Lateral flexion
Flexion in the direction away from, or farther from, a midline (tilt head side to side)
List the classifications of synovial joints
Gliding, hinge, pivot, ellipsoidal, saddle, ball and socket
Gliding joint
Movement: slight nonaxial or multiaxial Ex.: Acromioclavicular and claviculosternal joints/...
Hinge joint
Movement: Monaxial Ex: Elbow, knee, ankle, interphalangeal joints
Pivot joint
Movement: monaxial (rotation) Ex: atlas/axis, proximal radioulnar joint
Ellipsoidal joint
Movement: biaxial Ex: radiocarpal joint
Saddle joint
Movement: biaxial Ex: First carpometacarpal joint
Ball and socket joint
Movement: triaxial Ex: shoulder and hip joint
Intervertebral articulation
Articulations between superior and inferior articular processes of adjacent vertebrae are gliding...
What are the movements that can occur across the intervertebral joints of the vertebral column?
Flexion, extension, lateral flexion, rotation
Which joint permits the greatest range of motion?
Shoulder joint (ball and socket joint)
Describe the elbow joint.
Complex hinge joint, works like a door hinge
Why is the elbow joint stable?
1. Bony surfaces of the humerus and ulna interlock 2. Articular capsule is very thick 3. Capsule...
Describe the hip joint.
1. Sturdy ball and socket joint 2. Capable of flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, circumduction,...
Describe the knee joint.
1. Transfers weight from the femur to the tibia 2. Hinge joint 3. Permits flexion, extension,...
Rheumatism (Aging and articulations)
any disorder of the extremities or back, characterized by pain and stiffness
Arthritis (Aging and articulations)
acute or chronic inflammation of a joint, often accompanied by pain and structural changes...
Osteoarthritis (Aging and articulations)
the most common form of arthritis, marked by chronic breakdown of cartilage in the joints leading...
Rheumatoid arthritis (Aging and articulations)
a chronic autoimmune DISEASE characterized by inflammation of the joints, frequently accompanied...
Gouty arthritis (Aging and articulations)
a painful inflammation of the big toe and foot caused by defects in uric acid metabolism
meniscus
a disk of cartilage between the articulating ends of the bones in a joint


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