Chapter 9 A&P: Articulations


Chapter 9 Anatomy And Physiology On Articulations
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articulations
 
joints where two bones interconnect
List the 4 classifications of joints.
 
1. Range of motion 2. Synarthrosis 3. Amphiarthrosis 4. Diarthrosis or synovial joint
Synarthrosis
 
immovable joints
Type of synarthritic joints.
 
Sutures, gomphosis (teeth), synchondrosis (bones tightly fused with cartilage), synostosis (bones fused with bones)
Amphiarthrosis
 
slightly moveable (amphi - both, amphibians, slightly land and water)
Types of amphiarthritic joints
 
Syndesmosis (bones joined by ligament) and symphysis (pubic symphysis)
Diarthrosis
 
freely moveable joints
Type of diarthritic joint
 
Synovial joint (shoulder, phalanges)
Diarthrosis constains ________ fluid, which fills the joint.
 
synovial = Synovial joint is a type of diarthritic joint, so diarthrosis contains synovial fluid
Excess synovial fluid is calls what?
 
water on the knee
Three types of "axial" diarthritic joints
 
monaxial, biaxial, triaxial - mon, bi, and tri describe the number of planes they move on
Synovial fluid
 
resembles interstitial fluid, thick, viscous solution
Functions of synovial fluid
 
Lubrication, nutrient distribution, shock absorption
Accessory structures of joint
 
meniscus, fat pads, ligaments, tendons
Factors that stabilize joints (discussion question)
 
The greater the range of motion of a joint, the weaker it becomes; Strongest joints permit no movement
Factors responsible FOR stablizing joints (discussion question)
 
1. Presence of collagen fibers 2. The shapes of the articulating surfaces 3. The presence of other bones 4. Tension in tendons
Patterns of stabilizing structures varies amoung joints
 
Elbow, dislocation, subluxation
Dislocation
 
displacement of a body part
Subluxation
 
a partial dislocation or misalignment
Flexion
 
bending, decrease angle
Extension
 
extending, straightening, increase angle
Hyperextension
 
the extension of a part of the body beyond normal limits - tendons or ligaments can tear
Adduction (DD)
 
To draw inward toward the median axis of the body or toward an adjacent part or limb (ADD inward)
Abduction (BD)
 
To draw away from the midline of the body or from an adjacent part or limb (AB away)
Circumduction
 
Spin around - The circular movement of a limb such that the distal end of the limb delineates an arc
Supination
 
rotation of the hand or forearm so that the palmar surface is facing upward (SUP=UP)
Protation
 
rotation of the hand or forearm so that the surface of the palm is facing downward or toward the back
Injury to ligaments
 
Sprain (g - p) = hyperextended, torn ligament
Injury to muscles and tendons
 
Strain (St - tendons) = microtears
Eversion
 
a turning or being turned outward or inside out (eversion of eyelid)
Inversion
 
the turning inward of a part, as the foot
Dorsiflexion
 
flexion toward the back; especially : flexion of the foot in an upward direction
Plantar flexion
 
movement of the foot that flexes the foot or toes downward toward the sole
Opposition
 
A characteristic movement of the primate thumb, in which the pad of the thumb can be placed in contact with the pads of the fingers of the same hand (opposable thumb)
Retraction
 
an act or instance of retracting (draw back or in); specifically : backward or inward movement of an organ or part (retractable claws)
Protraction
 
the act of moving an anatomical part forward : the state of being protracted; especially : protrusion of the jaws
Depression
 
a displacement downward or inward
Elevation
 
move or raise to a higher place or position; lift up (shoulders)
Lateral flexion
 
Flexion in the direction away from, or farther from, a midline (tilt head side to side)
List the classifications of synovial joints
 
Gliding, hinge, pivot, ellipsoidal, saddle, ball and socket
Gliding joint
 
Movement: slight nonaxial or multiaxial Ex.: Acromioclavicular and claviculosternal joints/ Vertebrocostal joints
Hinge joint
 
Movement: Monaxial Ex: Elbow, knee, ankle, interphalangeal joints
Pivot joint
 
Movement: monaxial (rotation) Ex: atlas/axis, proximal radioulnar joint
Ellipsoidal joint
 
Movement: biaxial Ex: radiocarpal joint
Saddle joint
 
Movement: biaxial Ex: First carpometacarpal joint
Ball and socket joint
 
Movement: triaxial Ex: shoulder and hip joint
Intervertebral articulation
 
Articulations between superior and inferior articular processes of adjacent vertebrae are gliding joints
What are the movements that can occur across the intervertebral joints of the vertebral column?
 
Flexion, extension, lateral flexion, rotation
Which joint permits the greatest range of motion?
 
Shoulder joint (ball and socket joint)
Describe the elbow joint.
 
Complex hinge joint, works like a door hinge
Why is the elbow joint stable?
 
1. Bony surfaces of the humerus and ulna interlock 2. Articular capsule is very thick 3. Capsule is reinforced by strong ligaments
Describe the hip joint.
 
1. Sturdy ball and socket joint 2. Capable of flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, circumduction, and rotation 3. Very stable joint
Describe the knee joint.
 
1. Transfers weight from the femur to the tibia 2. Hinge joint 3. Permits flexion, extension, and limited rotation
Rheumatism (Aging and articulations)
 
any disorder of the extremities or back, characterized by pain and stiffness
Arthritis (Aging and articulations)
 
acute or chronic inflammation of a joint, often accompanied by pain and structural changes and having diverse causes, as infection, or injury
Osteoarthritis (Aging and articulations)
 
the most common form of arthritis, marked by chronic breakdown of cartilage in the joints leading to pain, stiffness, and swelling
Rheumatoid arthritis (Aging and articulations)
 
a chronic autoimmune DISEASE characterized by inflammation of the joints, frequently accompanied by marked deformities
Gouty arthritis (Aging and articulations)
 
a painful inflammation of the big toe and foot caused by defects in uric acid metabolism
meniscus
 
a disk of cartilage between the articulating ends of the bones in a joint
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