Chapter 8: Social Conflict And Critical Criminology

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Critical criminology
the branch of criminology that holds that the cause of crime can be linked to economic, social, and politcal disparity. ome groups in society, particularly the wokring class and ethnic minorities, are seen as the most likely to suffer oppressive social relations based on class conflict and racism and hence to be more prone to criminal behavior
the ability to persons and groups to control the behaior of others, to shape public opinion, and to define deviance
supranational criminology
the study of war crimes, crimes against humanity, and the supranational penal system
state (organized) crime
acts commited by state or government officals while holding their positions as government representatives
death squads
covert military or paramilitary groups that carry out political assassinations
surplus value
the difference between what workers produce and what they are paid, which goes to business owners as profits
displacement of workers, pushing them outside the economic and social mainstream
the process of creaing a global economy through tansnational markets and political and legal systems
instrumental theory
the theory that criminal law and the criminal jsutice system are capitalist instruments for controlling the lower class
to unmask the true purpose of law, justice, or other social institutions
structural theory
the theory that criminal law and the criminal justice stystem are menas of defending and preserving the capitalist system
left realism
approach that sees crime as a function of relative deprivation under capitalism and favors pragmatic, community based crime prevention and control
preemptive deterrence
efforts to prevent crime through community organization and youth involvment
critical feminism
approach that explains both victimization and criminality among women in terms of gender inequality, patriarchy, and the explotation od women under capitalism
male dominated
paternalistic families
families in whcih the father in the breadwinner and rule maker, and the mother has a mental job or is a homemaker only. Sons are granted greater greedom than daughters
role exit behaviors
strategies such as running away or contemplating suicide, that are used by young girls unhappy with their status in the family
egalitarian families
families in which the husband and wife share similar positions of power at home and in the workplace. Sons and daughters have equal freedom.
power-control theory
the view that gender differences in crime are a function of economic power (class position, one-versus two- earner families) and paentla control (parentalistic versus egalitarian families)
approach that considers puntitice crime conrtol strategies to be counterproducitve and favors the use of humanistic conflict recolution to prevent and control crime
sentencing circle
a peacemaking technique in which offenders, victims, and other community members work together to formulate a santino that addresses the needs of all

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