Chapter 8 - Medical Terminology

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Chapter 8 - Medical Terminology

Cardiovascular System. Sentence

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cardiovascular system (CV)
 
composed of the heart and blood vessels
Three major types of vessels
 
1. artery2. capillary3. vein
arteries
 
carries blood away from the heart
lumen 
 
the size of the lumen can be altered depending on the needs of the body
vasoconstriction
 
when lumen contracts to decrease blood flow
vasodilation
 
when lumen relaxes and causes increase in blood flow
pulse
 
surge of blood felt in the arteries when blood is pumped from the heart
oxygenated
 
high concentration of O2 and appears bright red
arterioles
 
small arteries that sends blood to the capillaries
capillaries
 
microscopic vessels that join the arterial system with the venous system
veins
 
return blood to the heart
deoxygenated 
 
low concentrations of O2
heart
 
muscular pump that propels blood to entire body through a closed vascular system
endocardium
 
serous membrane that lines heart chambers
myocardium
 
muscular layer of the heart
epicardium
 
outermost layer of the heart
four chambers of the heart
 
right and left atrium, right and left ventricle
right and left atrium
 
collect blood
right ventricle
 
lower chamber that pumps blood to the lungs
left ventricle
 
pumps blood from the heart
pulmonary circulation
 
right ventricle pumps blood to lungs for oxygenations
systemic circulation
 
left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to entire body
right coronary artery
 
artery vascularizing the right side of the heart
coronary arteries
 
give hear tissue its own O2
conduction tissue
 
cardiac tissue that has the sole function of initiating and spreading contraction impulses
contraction impulses
 
SA node --> AV node --> bundle of His --> Purkinje fibers
P wave
 
depolarization (contraction) of the atria
QRS complex
 
depolarization (contraction) of the ventricles
T wave
 
repolarization (recovery) of the ventricles
blood pressure (BP)
 
measures force of blood against arterial wall
systole
 
contraction phase when blood is forced out of the heart
diastole
 
relaxation phase when ventricles are filling with blood
hypertension
 
elevated BP
hypotension
 
decreased BP
aneurysm/o
 
widened blood vessel
angi/o
 
vessel (usually blood or lymph)
vascul/o
 
vessel (usually blood or lymph)
aort/o
 
vessel (usually blood or lymph)
arteri/o
 
artery
arteriol/o
 
arteriole
atri/o
 
atrium
ather/o
 
fatty plaque
cardi/o
 
heart
electr/o
 
electricity
embol/o
 
embolus (plug)
hemangi/o
 
blood vessel
my/o
 
muscle
phleb/o
 
vein
ven/o
 
vein
scler/o
 
hardening; sclera (white of eye)
sept/o
 
septum
sphygm/o
 
pulse
sten/o
 
narrowing, stricture
thromb/o
 
blood clot
ventricul/o
 
ventricle (of the heart of brain)
-sphyxia
 
pulse
-stenosis
 
narrowing, stricture
angina
 
chest pain
dyspnea
 
breathing difficulties
arrhythmias
 
cardiac irregularities
arteriosclerosis
 
hardening of arterial walls that causes them to become thickened and brittle
atheroma
 
hardening results from buildup of substances composed of cholesterol, lipids, and other cellular debris
atherosclerosis
 
plaque hardening
thrombus
 
blood clot
embolus
 
when thrombus travels through vascular system
infarct
 
emboli in arterial circulation lodge in the capillary bed and cause localized tissue death
aneurysm
 
vessel forms a bulge and may rupture
coronary artery disease (CAD)
 
failure of the coronary arteries to deliver an adequate supply of blood to the myocardium
arteriosclerosis
 
accumulation of black which causes wall of artery to harden
ischemia
 
O2 deficiency
trachycardia
 
rapid heart rate
bradycardia
 
slow heart rate
coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
 
rerouting blood around the occluded area using a vein graft that bypasses the obstruction
varicose veins
 
enlarged, twisted, superficial veins
aneurysm
 
localized abnormal dilation of a vessel, usually an artery
arrest
 
condition of being stopped or bringing to a stop
arrhythmia
 
inability of the heart to maintain a normal sinus rhythm 
catheter
 
thin, flexible, hollow plastic tube that is small enough to be threaded through a vein, artery, or tubular structure
deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
 
blood clot that forms in the deep veins of the body, especially those in the legs or thighs
heart failure (HF)
 
failure of the heart of supply an adequate amount of blood to tissues and organs
embolus
 
mass of undissolved matter circulating in blood
fibrillation
 
quivering or spontaneous muscle contractions, especially of the heart, causing ineffectual contractions
hemostasis
 
blood clotting
hyperlipidemia
 
excessive amounts of lipids in the blood
hypertension
 
elevated BP persistently exceeding 140 mm Hg systolic or 90 mm Hg diastolic
mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
 
condition in which leaflets of the mitral valve prolapse
palpitation
 
sensation that the heart is not beating normally, possibly including "thumping", "fluttering", or pounding feeling in chest
electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG)
 
graphic line recording that shows spread of electrical excitation to different parts of the heart using small metal electrodes applied to the chest, arms and legs
Holter monitor test
 
ECG taken with a small portable recording system capable of storing up to 24hrs of ECG tracings
stress test
 
ECG/EKG taken under controlled exercise stress conditions
cardiac enzyme studies
 
blood test to measure troponin and creatine kinase. enzymes are released into blood stream from damaged heart muscle
electrocardiography (ECHO)
 
noninvasive diagnostic method that uses ultrasounds to visualized internal cardiac structures and produce images of the heart
coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
 
uses a vessel graft from another part of the body to bypass the blocked part of a coronary artery and restore blood supply to the heart muscle
thrombolysis
 
destruction of a blood clot using anti-clotting agents called clot-busters
venipuncture
 
puncture of a vein by needle to withdraw specimen of blood (phlebotomy)
diuretics
 
act on kidneys to increase excretion of water, they reduce fluid build-up including the lungs
statins
 
lower cholesterol in the blood and reduce its production in the liver by blocking the enzyme that produces it
IV
 
intravenous
MI
 
myocardial infarction