Chapter 8 - Medical Terminology

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cardiovascular system. sentence


 
  
Created May 20, 2009
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1
cardiovascular system (CV)
 
composed of the heart and blood vessels
2
Three major types of vessels
 
1. artery2. capillary3. vein
3
arteries
 
carries blood away from the heart
4
lumen 
 
the size of the lumen can be altered depending on the needs of the body
5
vasoconstriction
 
when lumen contracts to decrease blood flow
6
vasodilation
 
when lumen relaxes and causes increase in blood flow
7
pulse
 
surge of blood felt in the arteries when blood is pumped from the heart
8
oxygenated
 
high concentration of O2 and appears bright red
9
arterioles
 
small arteries that sends blood to the capillaries
10
capillaries
 
microscopic vessels that join the arterial system with the venous system
11
veins
 
return blood to the heart
12
deoxygenated 
 
low concentrations of O2
13
heart
 
muscular pump that propels blood to entire body through a closed vascular system
14
endocardium
 
serous membrane that lines heart chambers
15
myocardium
 
muscular layer of the heart
16
epicardium
 
outermost layer of the heart
17
four chambers of the heart
 
right and left atrium, right and left ventricle
18
right and left atrium
 
collect blood
19
right ventricle
 
lower chamber that pumps blood to the lungs
20
left ventricle
 
pumps blood from the heart
21
pulmonary circulation
 
right ventricle pumps blood to lungs for oxygenations
22
systemic circulation
 
left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to entire body
23
right coronary artery
 
artery vascularizing the right side of the heart
24
coronary arteries
 
give hear tissue its own O2
25
conduction tissue
 
cardiac tissue that has the sole function of initiating and spreading contraction impulses
26
contraction impulses
 
SA node --> AV node --> bundle of His --> Purkinje fibers
27
P wave
 
depolarization (contraction) of the atria
28
QRS complex
 
depolarization (contraction) of the ventricles
29
T wave
 
repolarization (recovery) of the ventricles
30
blood pressure (BP)
 
measures force of blood against arterial wall
31
systole
 
contraction phase when blood is forced out of the heart
32
diastole
 
relaxation phase when ventricles are filling with blood
33
hypertension
 
elevated BP
34
hypotension
 
decreased BP
35
aneurysm/o
 
widened blood vessel
36
angi/o
 
vessel (usually blood or lymph)
37
vascul/o
 
vessel (usually blood or lymph)
38
aort/o
 
vessel (usually blood or lymph)
39
arteri/o
 
artery
40
arteriol/o
 
arteriole
41
atri/o
 
atrium
42
ather/o
 
fatty plaque
43
cardi/o
 
heart
44
electr/o
 
electricity
45
embol/o
 
embolus (plug)
46
hemangi/o
 
blood vessel
47
my/o
 
muscle
48
phleb/o
 
vein
49
ven/o
 
vein
50
scler/o
 
hardening; sclera (white of eye)
51
sept/o
 
septum
52
sphygm/o
 
pulse
53
sten/o
 
narrowing, stricture
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thromb/o
 
blood clot
55
ventricul/o
 
ventricle (of the heart of brain)
56
-sphyxia
 
pulse
57
-stenosis
 
narrowing, stricture
58
angina
 
chest pain
59
dyspnea
 
breathing difficulties
60
arrhythmias
 
cardiac irregularities
61
arteriosclerosis
 
hardening of arterial walls that causes them to become thickened and brittle
62
atheroma
 
hardening results from buildup of substances composed of cholesterol, lipids, and other cellular...
63
atherosclerosis
 
plaque hardening
64
thrombus
 
blood clot
65
embolus
 
when thrombus travels through vascular system
66
infarct
 
emboli in arterial circulation lodge in the capillary bed and cause localized tissue death
67
aneurysm
 
vessel forms a bulge and may rupture
68
coronary artery disease (CAD)
 
failure of the coronary arteries to deliver an adequate supply of blood to the myocardium
69
arteriosclerosis
 
accumulation of black which causes wall of artery to harden
70
ischemia
 
O2 deficiency
71
trachycardia
 
rapid heart rate
72
bradycardia
 
slow heart rate
73
coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
 
rerouting blood around the occluded area using a vein graft that bypasses the obstruction
74
varicose veins
 
enlarged, twisted, superficial veins
75
aneurysm
 
localized abnormal dilation of a vessel, usually an artery
76
arrest
 
condition of being stopped or bringing to a stop
77
arrhythmia
 
inability of the heart to maintain a normal sinus rhythm 
78
catheter
 
thin, flexible, hollow plastic tube that is small enough to be threaded through a vein, artery,...
79
deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
 
blood clot that forms in the deep veins of the body, especially those in the legs or thighs
80
heart failure (HF)
 
failure of the heart of supply an adequate amount of blood to tissues and organs
81
embolus
 
mass of undissolved matter circulating in blood
82
fibrillation
 
quivering or spontaneous muscle contractions, especially of the heart, causing ineffectual...
83
hemostasis
 
blood clotting
84
hyperlipidemia
 
excessive amounts of lipids in the blood
85
hypertension
 
elevated BP persistently exceeding 140 mm Hg systolic or 90 mm Hg diastolic
86
mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
 
condition in which leaflets of the mitral valve prolapse
87
palpitation
 
sensation that the heart is not beating normally, possibly including "thumping", "fluttering",...
88
electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG)
 
graphic line recording that shows spread of electrical excitation to different parts of the...
89
Holter monitor test
 
ECG taken with a small portable recording system capable of storing up to 24hrs of ECG tracings
90
stress test
 
ECG/EKG taken under controlled exercise stress conditions
91
cardiac enzyme studies
 
blood test to measure troponin and creatine kinase. enzymes are released into blood stream...
92
electrocardiography (ECHO)
 
noninvasive diagnostic method that uses ultrasounds to visualized internal cardiac structures...
93
coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
 
uses a vessel graft from another part of the body to bypass the blocked part of a coronary...
94
thrombolysis
 
destruction of a blood clot using anti-clotting agents called clot-busters
95
venipuncture
 
puncture of a vein by needle to withdraw specimen of blood (phlebotomy)
96
diuretics
 
act on kidneys to increase excretion of water, they reduce fluid build-up including the lungs
97
statins
 
lower cholesterol in the blood and reduce its production in the liver by blocking the enzyme...
98
IV
 
intravenous
99
MI
 
myocardial infarction


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