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Chapter 8 AP Human Geography Vocab


AP Human Geog Raphy Vo
  
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Annexation
 
legally adding land area to a city in the United States
Apartheid
 
Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas
Balkanization
 
Process by which a state breaks down through conflicts around its ethnicities
Border Landscape
 
the complex representation of the environment around that area
Boundary Disputes Definitional
 
conflict over the language of the border agreeement in a treaty or boundary contract
Boundary Disputes Locational
 
focus on delimitation or demarcation of boundary
Boundary Disputes Operational
 
arises due to a conflict about the administration of a boundary
Boundary Disputes Allocational
 
focus on baoundaries (especially on the sea floor0 while in search of resources
Boundary Origin Antecedent
 
boundary that was created before the present day cultural landscape developed
Boundary Origin Subsequent
 
boudnary evolved as the cultural landscape of an area took shape
Boundary Origin Superimposed
 
boundary that is forcibly drawn across a unified cultural landscape
Boundary Origin Relic
 
A border that has ceased to function but whose imprints are still evident of the cultural landscape
Boundary Process Definiton
 
the beginning point and the end point of a process
Boundary Process Delimitation
 
is the term used to describe the drawing of boundaries, but is most often used to describe the drawing of electoral boundaries, specifically those of precincts, states, counties or other municaipalities
Boundary Process Demarcation
 
the act of setting and marking limits or boundaries
Boundary type Natural/Physical
 
important physical features on Earth's surface can make good boundaries because they are easily seen, both on a map and on the ground. The three types of physical elements serve as boundaries between states: mountains, deserts, and water
Boundary Type Ethnographic/cultural, geometric
 
the boundaries between some states coincide with differences in ethnicity, especially language and religion. Other cultural boundaries are drawn according to geometry; they simply are straight lines drawn on a map, although good reasons alwasy exist for where the lines are located. Boundaries between countries have been where possible to separate speakers of different languages or followers of different religions. A nation-state exists when the boundaries of a state match the boundaries of the territory inhabited by an ethnic group. Problems exist when the boundaries do not match
Buffer State
 
a relatively small country sandwhiched between two larger powers. The existence of them my help to prevent dangerous conflicts between powerful countries
Capital
 
principle city in a state or country. The best place to locate it is at the center of a country so it is somewhat equal distance from all parts of the counrty
Centrifugal
 
forces that tend to divide a country
Centripetal
 
forces that tend to unite or bind a country together
City-State
 
a sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland
Colonialism
 
attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural prinicples in another territory
Confederation
 
a form of an international organization that brings several autonomous states together for a common purpose
Conference of Berlin
 
the metting of European powers in 1884-85 resulting in the Berlin Treaty and the partition of Africa into colonies of the attending nations
Core/periphery
 
refers to the center, heart, or focus. In a nation-state, this area is the heartland with the largest population cluster, the most productive economy, the area with the greatest centrality and accessibility, and probably cantains the capital city as well
Decolonization
 
the action of changing from colonial to independent status
Devolution
 
the process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the ventral government
Domino Theory
 
the idea that political destabilization in one country can lead to collapse of political stability in neighboring countries, starting a chain reaction of collapse
EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone)
 
an area from the shore in which a state has rights to explore, exploit, and manage natural resources in the seas
Electoral regions
 
the different voting districts that make up local, state, and national regions
Enclave
 
any small and relatively homogenous group or region surrounded by another larger and different group or region
Exclave
 
a bounded territory that is part of a particular state but is separated from it by the territory of a different state
ethnic conflict
 
conflict between ethnic groups that struggle to achieve certain political or economic goals at each other's expense
European Union
 
international organization comprised of Western Euorpean countries to promote free trade among members
Federal
 
an internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government
Forward capital
 
capital city positioned in actually or potenially contested territory, usually near an international border; it confirms the state's determination to maintain its presence in the region in contention
frontier
 
a zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control
Geopolitics
 
the study of the interplay between political relations and the territorial context in which they occur
Gerrymander
 
the designation of voting districts so as to favor a particular political party or candidate
Global Commons
 
those parts of our environment abailable ot everyone but for which no the atmoshper, fresh water, forests, wildlife, and ocean fisheries
Heartland/rimland
 
hypothesis proposed by Halford Mackinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world
Immigration states
 
a type of reciving state which is the target of many immigrants; popular because of their economy, political freedom, and opportunity
international organization
 
an alliance of two or more countries seeking cooperation with each other without giving up either's autonomy or self-determination
Iron Curtain
 
an impenetrable barrier to communication or information especially as imposed by rigid censorship and secrecy; a political barrier that isolated the people of Eastern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to trabel outside the region
Irredentism
 
a policy of cultural extension and potential political expansion by a country aimed at a group of its nationals living in a neighboring country
Landlocked
 
a stae that is completely surrounded by the land of other states, which gives it a disadvantage in terms of accessibility to and from international trade routes
law of the sea
 
law establishing states' rights and responsibilites concerning the ownership and use of the earth's seas and oceans and their resources
Halford J Mackinder
 
was an English geographer and is considered one of the founding fathers of both geopolitics and geostrategy
manifest destiny
 
the belief that the United States was destined to stretch across the continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean
Median-line principle
 
statement in UNCLOS declaring that when there is not enough water for each country on o0pposite sides of the sea to have 200 nautical miles of exclusive economic zone, the two or more countries involved will divide the water evenly
microstate
 
a state that encompasses a very small land area
ministate
 
an imprecise term for a territory, extremely small in both area and population
nation
 
tightly knit group of individuals sharing a common language, ethnicity, religion, and other cultural attributes
national iconography
 
figural representations, either individual or symbolic, religious or secualr; more broadly, the art of representation by picutres or images, which may or may not have a symbolic as well as an apparent or superficial meaning
nation-state
 
a cuntry whose population possesses a substantial degree of cultural homogeneity and unity
nunavut
 
an arctic territory in northern Canada created in 1999 and governed solely by the Inuit
Rasion d'etre
 
reason for being; the purpose that justifies a thing's existence
reapportionment
 
the process of a reallocation of elecctoral seats to deifined territories
regionalism
 
a foreign policy that defines the international interests of a country in terms of particular geographic areas
religious conflict
 
conflicts between religions that has often resulted in bloodshed
reunification
 
the unification of something that was previously divided; used especially of a country
satellite state
 
national state that is economically dependent and poitically and militarily subservient to another--in its orbit, figuratively speaking
self-determination
 
the right of a nation to govern itself autonomosly
shatterbelt
 
a large, strategically located region that is occupied by a number of conflicting interests of adjoining Great Powers; a zone of chronic political spilintering and fracturing
sovereignty
 
supreme or independent political power
state
 
a politically organized territory that is administered by a sovereign government and is recognized by the international community
stateless ethnic groups
 
ethnic groups that share certain cultural, political, and/or historic qualities, such as religion, location, or art, but do not share enough qualities to be recognized as a nationality/nation and have no state(homeland) that is politically recognized as belonging to them
stateless nation
 
a nation that does not have a state
suffrage
 
the right to vote
supranationalism
 
a venture involving three or more nation-states involving formal political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives
territorial disputes
 
any dispute over land ownership
territorial morphology compact
 
a country in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly
territorial morphology fragmented
 
a country that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory
territorial morphology elongated
 
a country with a long, narrow shape
territorial morphology Prorupt
 
an otherwise compact country with a large projecting extension
territorial morphology perforated
 
a country that completely surrounds another state
territoriality
 
in political geography a country's or a more local community's sense of property and attachment toward its territory, as expressed by its desire to keep it inviolable and strongly defended
Theocracy
 
a state whose government is either believed to be divinely guided or a state under the control of a group of religious leaders
treaty ports
 
a port kept open for foreign trade according to the terms of a treat, especially formerly in China, Korea, and Japan
UNCLOS (United National Convention on the Law of the Sea)
 
is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, which took place from 1973 through 1982
unitary
 
a state governed constitutionally as a unit, without internal divisions or a federalist delegation of powers
USSR collapse
 
the primary causes were political and economic and they were result of the culture of war
Women's enfranchisement
 
the right of women to vote; exercise of the franchise by women
NA
 
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