Chapter 7 Psychology

53 cards

These Are Key Word


 
  
Created Mar 11, 2010
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kat0109

 

 
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1
Anterograde Amnesia
 
Loss of memory for events that occur after a head injury
2
Attention
 
Focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events
3
Chunk
 
A group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit
4
Clustering
 
Tendancy to remember similar or related items in groups
5
Conceptual hierarchy
 
multilevel classification system based on common properties among items
6
Connectionist Models
 
PDP models
7
Consolidation
 
hypothetical process involving the gradual conversion of the information into durable memory...
8
Decay theory
 
the idea that forgetting occurs because memory traces fade with time
9
Declarative memory system
 
memory for factual information
10
Dual-coding theory
 
Paivo's theory that memory is inhanced by forming semantic and visual codes, since either can...
11
Elaboration
 
linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding
12
Encoding
 
forming a memory code
13
encoding specific principal
 
the idea that the value of a retreival cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory...
14
episodic memory system
 
chronological recollations of personal experiences
15
explicit memory
 
intentional recollation of previous experiences
16
flashbulb memory
 
unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentuous events
17
forgetting curve
 
graph showing retention and forgetting over time
18
implicit theory
 
type of memory apparent when retention is exhibited on a task that does not require intentional...
19
interference theory
 
the idea that people forget information because of competition from other material
20
keyword method
 
a mnemonic technique in which one associates a concrete word with an abstract word and generates...
21
levels of processing theory
 
theory holding that deeper levels of mental processing result in longer lasting memory codes
22
link method
 
forming a mental image of items to be remembered in a way that links them together
23
long term memory
 
an unlimited capacity store that can hold information for lengthy periods of time
24
long term potentation
 
a long lasting increase in neural excitability in synapses along a specific neural pathway
25
method of loci
 
mnemonic device that involves taking an imainary walk along a familiar pathway where images...
26
mnemonic devices
 
strategies for inhancing memory
27
nondeclarative memory system
 
memory for actions
28
overlearning
 
continued rehearsal of material after one first appears to have mastered it
29
parallel distributed processing models
 
models of memory that assume cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly...
30
proactive interference
 
a memory problem that occurs when previously learned information interferes with the retention...
31
procedural memory system
 
the repository of memores for actions, skills, and operations
32
reality monitoring
 
the process of deciding whether memories are based on external sources or internal sources
33
recall
 
a memory test that requires subjects to reproduce information on their own without any ques
34
rehearsal
 
the process of repetitively verbalizing or thining about information to be stored in memory
35
relearning
 
a memory test that requires a subject to memorize information a second time to determine how...
36
repression
 
keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconcious
37
retention
 
the proportion of material retained
38
retereival
 
recovering information from memory stores
39
retrograde amnesia
 
loss of memories for events that occured prior to a head injury
40
retroactive interference
 
a memory problem that occurs when new information impairs the retention of previously learned...
41
retrospective memory
 
the ability to remember events from the past or previously learned information
42
schema
 
an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or sequence of events
43
script
 
a type of schema that organizes what people know about common activities
44
self-referent encoding
 
deciding how or whether information is personally relevent
45
semantic memory system
 
general  knowledge that is not tied to the time when the information was learned
46
sensory memory
 
the preservation of information in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only...
47
serial-position effect
 
in memory tests, the fact that subjects show better recall for items at the beginning and end...
48
short-term memory
 
a limited capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for about 20-30 seconds
49
source monitoring
 
the process of making attributions about the origin of memories
50
source monitoring error
 
an error that occurs when a memory derived from one source is misattributed to another source
51
storage
 
maintaining encoded information in memory over time
52
tip-of-the-toungue phenomenon
 
temporary inability to remember something accompanied by a feeling that it's just out of reach
53
transfer-appropriate processsing
 
the situation that occurs when the inital processing of information is similar to the type...

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