Chapter 7 Nervous Tissue And Nervous System

CNS And PNS﷯﷯ ﷯ ﷯﷯﷯﷯﷯﷯

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Side ASide B
what does the central Nervous system contain
brain and spinal cord
what does the peripheral NS contain
spinal and cranial nerves
what are the 2 subdivisions of the peripheral NS
somatic autonomic
what does the somatic ns do
voluntary control of skeletal muscles
what does the autonomic ns do
involuntary control of smooth, cardiac, and glands
what are the 2 subdivisions of the autonomic ns
sympathetic parasympathetic
what does the enteric ns do
involuntary sinsory and motor control GI trac
name the nervous tissue cells
astrocytes microglua ependymal satellite schwann oligodendrocyte
tissue cell that contains the BBB
theis nervous tissue contains phagocytes that engulf foreign materials
this nervous tissue cell surrounds the cell body and insulates it
this nervous tissue cell contains CSF
this nervous cell contains myelin in the PNS
this nervous cell contains myelin tissue in the CNS
most common cell type
in the retina ear and olfactory
always sensory
the afferent cells (into spinal cord)
sensory neurons
out of brain and into the body (efferent)
motor neurons
link sensory to motor
name two types of electrochemical gradient
chemical electrical
what happens in the chemical gradient
ions move from high to low concentration
what happens in electrical gradient
ions move toward opposite charge
aka for nerve impulse
action potential
name the four steps in polarization and depolarization
1 - resting state 2 depolarization 3 repolarization 4 hyperpolarization  
describe what happens in the resting state
gates on neuron are closed. NA is on outside and K (-) is on the inside
what happens in depolarization
NA flows into cell and the inside becomes +
what happens in repolarization
K comes out of the cell and the inside becomes -
what happens in hyperpolarization
NA/K pump kicks in and trades Na back to outside and K back inside the cell
what is the measurenent of the resting state
what is the measurement for the threshold
define all or none phenomenon
action potentials happem completely or not at all
how do we differentiate a light touch from a firmer touch?
frequency of impulses number of sensory neurons activated
what happens in continuous conduction
step by step depolarization of each protion of the membrane
what happens in saltatory conduction
depoarization only at noes of ranvier
which action potential is faster contunious or saltatory
what is the CSF pathway direction
lateral ventricles - intercentricular foramen- 3rd ventricle- cerebral aqueduct - 4th ventricle- central canal
what keeps the brain from shifting side to side
fals cerebri
name the 3 brain parts that help secure the brain
falx cerebri tentoruim cerebilli calx cerebelli (floor support)
area of the brain for taste
primary gustatory area
precise, skilled, voluntary movement
primary (somatic) motor cortex
learned, repetitous or patterened motor skills such as walking
premotor cortex
motor speech area
broca's area
sensory information from skin and skeletal muscle
primary somatosensory cortex
informatio from the retinas
primary visual cortex
pitch, rhythm, and loudness
primary auditory cortex
intellect, cognition, recall, personality, reasoning, persistance, emotions, judgement
prefrontal cortex
what does the thalamus do
relay for sensory impulses, except smell to cortex
what does the basal nuclei do
regulate slow or stereotyped movements
what does the hypothalamus do
homeostasis, ANS control, hormones, temperature, feeding, thirst, hunger
what does the reticular activating system do
awaken from sleep and maintains consciousness filters out repettitive stimuli (able to ignore some noises while studying)
"inform" of body position & alcohol tester
inner most meninge
pia mater
middle meninge
outside meninge
dura mater
what is the end of the spinal cord called
conus medullaris
in adults what are the discs that are in the conus medullaris
in a child what are the discs that are in the conus medullarus
how many pairs of spinal nerves are there
how many cervical spinal nerves
how many thoracic spinal nerves
how many lumbar spinal nerves are there
how many sacral nerves
how many coccyx nerves
name the sensory receptors in the PNS
mechanoreceptors thermoreceptors photoreceptors chemoreceptors nociceptors
define mechanoreceptors
feel physical mechanical pressure
what do thermoreceptors do
feel temperature
what do photoreceptors do
detect light for eyes
define chemoreceptors
detects chemicals
define what niciceptors are
pain receptors inside and out
what do exteroceptors detect
external stimuli
what do interoceptors detect
internal stimuli
proprioceptors are where
musclesm tendons, joints and ligaments
name the cranial nerves
olfactory I optic II oculomotor III trochlear IV abducens VI facial VII vestibilocochlear VIII glossopharyngeal IX vagus X accessory XI hypoglossal XII  
what does the olfactory nerve do
optic nerve
oculomotor III, trochlear IV, abducens VI
eye movement
trigeminal V
sensory- face mastication
facial VII
motor of face taste in anterior 2/3 tongue
vestibulocochlear VIII
hearing balance
glossopharyngeal IX
swallowing taste posterior 1/3 tongue
vagus X
taste - pharynx parasympathetic division to body
accessory XI location
sternocleidomastoid trapezius
motor of tongue

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