Chapter 7- Information Security

Business AIS
Created Feb 10, 2012
by rothera
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Side ASide B
time-based model of security
focuses on the relationship between preventative, detective, and corrective controls
defense in depth
to employ multiple layers of controls in order to avoid having a single point of failure
authentication
focusses on verifying the identity of the person or device attempting to access the system
biometric identifier
users authenticated by verifying some physical characteristic
multifactor authentication
the use of two or all three methods in conjunction
authorization
restricts access of authenticated users to specific portions of the system and specifies what...
access control matrix
a table specifying which portions of the system users are permitted to access and what actions...
compatibility test
matches the user's authentication credentials against the access control matrix to determine...
social engineering
uses deception to obtain unauthorized access to info resources (tricks)
border router
connects an orgs info system to the internet
firewall
behind the border routerspecial purpose hardware device or software running on a general purpose...
demilitarized zone (DMZ)
separate network that permits controlled access from the internet to selected resources
transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
specifies the procedures for dividing files and documents into packets to be sent over the...
Internet protocol (IP)
specifies the structure of those packets and how to route them to the proper destination.
routers
special purpose devices designed to read the destination address fields in IP packet headers...
access control list
(ACL)a set of rules that determines which packets are allowed entry and which are dropped
static packet filtering
screens individual IP packets based solely on the contents of the sources and or destination...
stateful packet filtering
maintains a table that lists all established connections between the organization's computers...
deep packet inspection
when the firewall examines the data in the body of an IP packet rather than only...
intrusion prevention systems (IPS)
designed to identify and drop packets that are part of an attack
remote authentication Dial-In user service (RADIUS)
standard method for verifying the identity of users attempting to connect via dial in access.user...
war dialing
calls every telephone number assigned to the organization to identify those which are connected...
hosts
the workstations servers, printers and other devices that comprise the organization's network
vulnerabilities
every program running on a host represents a potential point of attack because it probably...
hardening
the process of turning off unnecessary program features
encryption
process of transforming normal text (plaintext) into unreadable gibberish (ciphertext)
decryption
reverses the process of encryptiontransforms ciphertext back into plaintext
key escrow
involves making copies of all encryption keys used by employees and storing those copies securely
symmetric encryption systems
use the same key both to encrypt and decrypt(DES, AES)
asymmetric encryption systems
uses a public and private key(PKI)(RSA, PGP)
public key
widely distributed and available to everyone
private key
kept secret and known only to the owner of that pair of keys
hashing
a process that takes plaintext of any length and transforms it into a short code called a hash
hash
plaintext that has been transformed into short code
digital signature
information encrypted with the creator's private key
digital certificate
electronic document, created and digitally signed by a trusted third party, that certifies...
public key infrastructure (PKI)
the system and processes used to issue and manage asymmetric keys and digital certificates
certificate authority
an independent org that issues public and private keys and records the public key in a digital...
e-signature
a cursive style imprint of a person's name that is applied to an electronic document
log analysis
process of examining logs to monitor security
intrusion detection systems (IDS)
create logs of network traffic that was permitted to pass the firewall and then analyze those...
vulnerability scans
use automated tools designed to identify whether a given system possesses any well-known vulnerabilities
penetration test
authorized attempt by either an internal audit team or external security consulting firm to...
computer emergency response team (CERT)
a team responsible for dealing with major security incidents
exploit
set of instructions for taking advantage of a vulnerability
patch
code released by software developers that fixes a particular vulnerability
patch mgmt
process for regularly applying patches and updates to all software used by the org


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