Chapter 7: Genetics

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Created Mar 16, 2010
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Katnc2295

 

 
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1
What is genetics?
 
the study of heredity
2
When and where was Gregor Mendel born? What did he become? Where did he study scienec...
 
1822 in what is now the Czech Republic; he became a priest; he studied at the University of...
3
What is fertilization? What does it produce?
 
It happens during fertilization when male and female reproductive cells join. It produces...
4
True or False: Pea flowers are normally self-pollinating, which means that sperm cells in pollen...
 
TRUE
5
What  does true-breeding mean? Are pea plants true-breeding?
 
Yes, pea plants are true-breeding meaning that if they were allowed to self-pollinate, they...
6
How did Mendel accomplish joining male and female reproductive cells from two different plants?...
 
He had to prevent self-pollination. He cut away the pollen-bearing male parts and then dusting...
7
What is a trait? Mendel studied 7 traits. What are hybrids?
 
A trait is a specific characteristic Hybrids - the offspring of crosses between parents with...
8
What were Mendel's two conclusions about why only one characteristics from a parent shows up?
 
1) Biological inheritance is determined by factors (genes which determine traits, but he did...
9
What are alleles? What is segregation? What are gametes?
 
- different forms of a gene - separation of alleles - sex cells
10
What does homozygous/heterozygous mean? Which one is true-breeding? Which one is hybrid for...
 
Homozygous means than an organism has two identical alleles, Heterozygous means they have two...
11
What does the principle of independent assortment state?
 
that genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes....
12
Summarize Mendel's Principles.
 
1) The inheritance of biological characteristics is determined by individual units knows as...
13
What is Gregor Mendel known as? What are his 3 principles (Mendelian Principles)?
 
"The Father of Modern Genetics" Principle of Dominance, Principle of segregation, Principle...
14
What was the early "Blending Theory"?
 
That the offspring combination of traits from both parents could never change (red flower...
15
TRUE OR FALSE: Some alleles are neither dominant nor recessive, and many traits are controlled...
 
TRUE
16
What is incomplete dominance?
 
Cases in which one allele is not completely dominant over another one; The heterozygous phenotype...
17
What is codominance?
 
In which both alleles contribute to the phenotype. For example, in certain varieties of chicken,...
18
When a gene has more than two alleles, it is said to have ________.
 
multiple alleles... If there are 4 alleles, one is dominant to all others and and the other...
19
What are polygenic traits?
 
Traits that are controlled by two or more genes
20
TRUE OR FLASE: The environment has an impact on characteristics in an organism.
 
TRUE
21
What are linked genes?
 
genes on the same chromosome are joined together - "linked"
22
Do linked genes experience independent assortment?
 
NO
23
What disrupts linkage groups and creates individuals with new gene combinations (recombinants)?
 
Crossing-over
24
The more frequent the crossing-over, the _________
 
further apart the genes
25
Sex-linked genes are genes found ONLY _________.
 
on the X chromosome
26
Pleiotrophy:
 
Single gene has multiple phenotypic effects
27
Epistasis:
 
Interaction of allele pairs (genes) controls expression of single trait
28
Polygenic inheritance:
 
- Trait shows a range or continuum of expression - Additive effect of two or more genes (pairs...
29
RULE OF MULTIPLICATION:
 
- to determine the probability of two independent events occurring - MULTIPLY the probability...
30
RULE OF ADDITION:
 
- Probability that any one of two or more mutually exclusive events will occur - ADD together...


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