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AIDS (aquired immunodeficiency syndrome)
the most advanced, and fatal, stage of an HIV infection
a substance that produces an allergic reaction in an individual.
anaphylactic shock, is a severe response to an allergen. Symptoms can develop quickly, and without medical aid, the patient can die within a few minutes.
medications that are capable of inhibiting growth, or killing pathogenic bacterial microorganisms. Inhibit means to slow the growth or development. Antibiotics are not effective against...
a disease-fighting protein created by the immune system in response to the presence of a specific antigen. The terms antibody and immunoglobulin are often used interchangeably.
an agent that destroys or inhibits the growth of fungi.
any sybstance that the body regards as being foreign, and includes viruses, bacteria, toxins, and transplanted tissues. The immune system immediately responds to the presence of an...
a.k.a. immune reaction, involves binding antigens to antibodies. This resction labels a potentially dangerous antigen so it can by recognized, and destroyed, by other cells of the immune...
a.k.a. autoimmune disease, is any of a large group of diseases characterized by a condition in which the immune system produces antibodies against its own tissues. This abnormal functioning...
rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria
one-celled microcopic organisms. Most bacteria are not harmful to humans. Bacteria that are pathogenic in humans include bacilli, rickettsia, spirochetes, staphylococci, and streptococci.
a malignant tumor that occurs in epithelial tissue. This tissue forms the protective covering for all of the internal and external surfaces of the body.
carcinoma in situ
desctibes a malignant tumor in its original position that has not yet distrbed or invaded the surrounding tissues. In situ means in the place where the cancer first occurred.
a group of proteins that normally circulate in the blood in an inactive form and are activated by contact with nonspecific antigens such as foreign blood cells or bacteria. Complement...
a member of the herpesvirus family that cause a variety of diseases
a medication that kills or damages cells. These drugs are used as immunosuppressants or as antineoplastics.
ductal carcinoma in situ
breast cancer at its earliest stage before the cancer has broken through the wall of the milk duct. At this stage, the cure rate is nearly 100%.
function of destroying worn-out red blood cells and releasing their hemoglobin for reuse
a.k.a. shingles, is an acute viral infection characterized by painful skin eruptions that follow the underlying route of an inflamed nerve. This inflammation ccurs when the dormant...
a.k.a. Hodgkin's disease is distinguished from other lymphomas by the presence of large, cancerous lymphocytes known as Reed-Sternberg cells.
HIV (human immunodeficiency disorder)
a bloodbotne infection in which the virus damages or kills the cells of the immune system, causing it to progressively fail, thus leaving the body at risk of developing many life-threatening...
bind with specific antigens in the antigen-antibody response. The five primaery types, which are secreted by plasma cells, are also known as antibodies. Plasma cells are specialized...
a substance that prevents or reduces the body's normal immune response. This medication is administered to pjrevent the rejection of donor tissue and to depress autoimmune disorders.
a disease treatment that involves either stimulating or repressing the immune response
a.k.a. mono, is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. This condition is characterized by fever, a sore throat, and enlarged lymph nodes. Swelling of the spleen or liver involvement can...
infiltrating ductal carcinoma
a.k.a. invasive ductial carcinoma, starts in the milk duct, breaks through the wall of the gland, and invades the fatty breast tissue. This form of cancer accounts for the majority...
a family of proteins produced by the T cells whose specialty is fighting viruses by slowing or stopping their multiplication
a.k.a. swollen glands, is an inglammation of the lymph nodes. The terms lymph nodes and lymph glands are sometimes used interchangeably. Swelling of the lymph nodes is frequently an...
any disease process affecting a lymph node or nodes.
a benign tumor formed by abnorml collection of lymphatic vessels due to a congenital malformation of the lymphatic system.
swelling due to an abnormal accumulation of lymph fluid within the tissues
white blood cells that are formed in bone marrow as stem cells. These cells undergo further maturation and differentiation in lymphoid tissues throughout the body.
produced by the T cells, direct the antigen-antibody response by signaling between the cells of the immune system. Lymphokines attract macrophages to the infected site and prepare them...
a general term applied to malignancies affecting lymphoid tissues. This includes lymph nodes, the spleen, liver, and bone marrow.
a diagnostic test that is performed to detect damage or malformations of the lymphatic vessels
a type of white blood cell that surrounds and kills invading cells. Macrophages also remove dead cells and stimulate the action of other immune cells.
a disease caused bya a parasite that lives in certain mosquitoes that is transferred to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito.
a radiographic examination of the breasts to detect the presence of tumors or precancerous cells. The resulting record is a mammogram.
a new cancer site that results from the spreading process. The mestasis can be within the same body system or within another body system at a distance from the primary site.
the process by which cancer spreads from one place to another. The cancer moves from the primary site and metastasizes (spreads) to a secondary site.
a benign tumor made up of muscle tissue
a malignant tumor derived from muscle tissue
the term used to describe all lymphomas other than Hodgkin's lymphoma.
caused by a pathogen that does ot normally produce an illness in health humans. However, when the host is debilitated, these pathogens are able to cause an infection. Debilitated means...
a malignant tumor usually involving the upper shaft of long bones, the perlvis, or knee.
a plant or animal that lives on, or within, another living organism at the expense of that organism.
a microorganism that causes adisease in humans. A microorganism is a living organism that is so small it can be seen only with the aid of a microscope. Pathogenic means capable of producing...
an acute viral infection that is most commonly transmitted to humans by the bite or saliva of an infected animal. Signs and symptoms usually occur 30-90 days after the bite. Once symptoms...
a small bacterium that lives in lice, fleas, ticks, and mites
a.k.a. German measles or 3-day measles, is a viral infection characterized by a low-grade fever, swollen glands, inflamed eyes, and a fine, pink rash.
a malignant tumor that arises from connective tissues, soft tissues, and liquid tissues
spiral-shaped bacteria that have flexible walls and are capable of movement
an abnormal enlargement of the spleen. This condition can be due to bleeding caused by an injury, an infectious disease such as mononucleosis, or abnormal functioning of the immune...
a group of about 30 species of bacteria that form irregular groups or clusters resembling grapes
bacteria that form a chain. Many streptococcal species are harmless; however, other members of this group are responsible for illnesses including strep-throat, meningitis, endocarditis,...
radiation therapy administered at a distance from the body.
caused by the bacillus Clostridium tetani, and is transmitted through a cur or wound. Commonly known as lockjaw because it produces muscle spasma that are so severe a patient cannot...
most commonly transmitted from animals to humans by contact with contaminated feces.
a.k.a. chickenpox, is caused by the herpes virus Varicella zoster and is highly contagious. This condition is characterized bya fever and a rash consisting o hundreds of itchy, fluid-filled...
occurs when the immune response is compromised. Compromised means weakened, reduced, absent, or not functioning properly.