Chapter 6 Pg 1-3.5

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True or False: Piaget believed that human infants start out as cognitive beings. Briefly explain your response.
Because Piaget viewed children as building almost all knowledge through interactions with their world, his theory is regarded as a ________________ approach.
True or False: New studies reveal that although Piaget underestimated the age at which some cognitive capacities emerge, these cognitive attainments do, in fact, develop in the neat, stepwise fashion that Piaget predicted.
Most researchers believe that babies are born with (more/fewer) cognitive tools than proposed by Piaget.
List the four stages of cognitive development outlined in Piaget’s theory.
What is the most obvious change as children move from the sensorimotor stage to the preoperational stage?
True or False: Piaget believed that all aspects of cognition change in an integrated fashion.

True or False: Piaget’s stages are invariant, meaning that they always follow a fixed order, and no stage can be skipped.

Piaget’s stages are (culturally specific to children in North America and Western Europe/universal among children everywhere).
How does language increase the efficiency of thought?
According to Piaget, specific psychological structures, or organized ways of making sense of experience called _______________________, change with age.

____________________________ are images and concepts that the mind can manipulate. They are essential in the transition from a sensorimotor approach to a _____________ approach (Adaptation/Organization) builds schemes through interaction with the external world, while
(adaptation/organization) is an internal process of arranging and linking schemes.

During _____________________________, we use our current schemes to interpret the external world. In _____________________, we create new schemes or adjust old ones to produce a better fit with the
environment. (p. 225)

Piaget used the term _____________________________ to sum up the back-and-forth movement between cognitive equilibrium and disequilibrium that leads to more effective schemes.
According to Piaget, (language/sensorimotor activity) gives rise to representational thought.

Piaget proposed that play allows children to practice newly acquired ____________________________.
Match each of the following sensorimotor substages with the appropriate description.
______ Infants’ primary means of adapting to the environment is through reflexes.
______ Infants engage in goal-directed behavior and begin to achieve object permanence.
______ Toddlers repeat behaviors with variation, producing new effects.
______ Infants’ adaptations are oriented toward their own bodies.
______ Infants’ attention begins to turn outward toward the environment.
______ Toddlers gain mental the ability to create representations.

A. Substage 1
B. Substage 2
C. Substage 3
D. Substage 4
E. Substage 5
F. Substage 6
List three advances in make-believe play during early childhood, and give an example of each.
The _____________________________________ occurs when infants stumble onto a new experience caused by their own motor activity and then try to repeat the event again and again, thereby strengthening the response into a new scheme.
Around age 2, children begin to combine their pretend schemes with those of others in _______________

True or False: In addition to Piaget’s assertions that play helps children work through their emotions and exercise representational schemes, today’s theorists also believe that play contributes to children’s cognitive and social skills.

True or False: Recent research indicates that the creation of an imaginary companion is a sign of
Explain the differences among primary, secondary, and tertiary circular reactions.
List the three-stage sequence through which drawing skills typically progress and the approximate age at which each stage is reached.
Eight- to 12-month-old infants gain an understanding that objects exist even when they are out of sight, a principle known as ________________________________. However, they typically make the ______________ search error, searching only in the first hiding place when an object has been moved from one hiding place to another.

___________________ imitation is the ability to remember and copy the behavior of models who are not immediately present.

Mental representation makes possible _________________________ play, in which children act out everyday and imaginary activities.
True or False: Irreversibility is the most important feature of illogical thought. Give an example of irreversible thinking.

Lack of logical operations leads preschoolers to struggle with ________________________; that is, they cannot
yet organize objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences.

Explain the violation-of-expectation method, which is often used by researchers to examine infants’ grasp of
object permanence and other aspects of physical reasoning.
Describe evidence indicating that culture has a significant impact on the development of drawing skills
In Renée Baillargeon’s experiments, infants as young as 2½ to 3½ months looked longer at the
(expected/unexpected) event, suggesting that they (are/are not) aware of object permanence. Similar studies (have/have not) confirmed these findings. Other evidence, based on babies’ EEG patterns and object tracking, (does/does not) suggest that babies have a sense of object permanence.
The term __________________________ refers to the ability to view a symbolic object as both an object in its own right and a symbol. Provide an example.
True or False: Infants demonstrate the A-not-B search error because of memory deficits; that is, they cannot
remember an object’s new location after it has been hidden in more than one place. Describe two types of
evidence that supporting your answer. Inhibition and reinforcement and Dynamic system of factors.
According to Piaget, young children are not yet capable of operations. Define this term.
True or False: New studies of deferred imitation show that babies are capable of mental representation much earlier than Piaget proposed.
The earliest categories used by infants are (conceptual/perceptual), based on similar overall appearance or prominent object part. By the end of the first year, categories become (conceptual/perceptual), based on common functions and behavior.

By 10 to 12 months of age, infants engage in ______________ problem solving, meaning that they take a strategy from one problem and apply it to other relevant problems.
Piaget believed that ___________________, the tendency to focus on one’s own viewpoint while ignoring other perspectives, is the fundamental deficiency of preoperational thought.

According to Piaget, when preoperational children attribute thoughts or intentions to inanimate objects, they are displaying (egocentric/animistic) thinking.

The term __________________________ refers to the idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same even when their outward appearance changes.

In Piaget’s conservation of liquid task, a child who focuses on the width of the water while ignoring its height is displaying (conservation/centration).

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