Chapter 6 Medical Terminology

Chapter 6 Medical Terminology Anatomy And Physiology. Sentence.
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gastrointestinal system
 
(GI) digestive system, consists of a digestive tube called the GI tract
GI tract
 
extends from the mouth to the anus
1. mouth
2. pharynx (throat)
3. esophagus
4. stomach
5. small intestine
6. large intestine
7. rectum
8. anus
digestive system
 
included are the accessory organs of the digestive system: the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
oral cavity
 
mouth
bolus
 
food is broken down mechanically (teeth) and chemically (saliva) and the formed into a mass of food ready to be swallowed
teeth
 
mechanically break down food (mastication)
dentin
 
the main structure of the took covered by a hard enamel
pulp
 
contains nerves and blood vessels
gingiva
 
fleshy tissue known as gums
deglutition
 
tongue pushes food into the mouth for swallowing
two structures that form the roof of the mouth
 
hard palate (anterior portion), and soft palate (posterior portion)
pharynx
 
lowest portion divides into two tubes known as the trachea and esophogus
trachea
 
tube that leads to the lungs
esophogus
 
tube that leads to the stomach
epiglottis
 
small flap of cartilage that covers the trachea during swallowing
duodenum
 
stomach extends from the esophagus to the first part of the small intestine
lower esophageal (cardiac) sphincter
 
composed of muscle fibers that constrict once food has passed into the stomach, prevents stomach contents fron regurgitating back into the esophogus
stomach produces...
 
digestive glands produce hyrdrochloric acid (HCl) and enzymes
chyme
 
stomach turns the bolus into a semiliquid form 
pyloric sphincter
 
regulates the speed and movement of chyme into the small intestine and prohibits back-flow
peristalsis
 
rhythmic muscle contractions
small intestine
 
1. duodenum (10 inches)
2. jejunum (8 feet)
3. ileum (12 feet)
pancreas and liver
 
 with the help of additional enzymes, digestion is completed in the small intestine
villi
 
nutrients are absorbed through these finger-like projections
large intestine (colon)
 
begins at the end of the ileum and extends through the anus, it absorbs water and minerals and eliminate undigested material
accessory organs of digestion
 
liver, gallbladder, and pancreas play a vital role in the proper digestion and absorption of nutrients
liver
 
produces bile and removes glucose to turn it into glycogen and detoxifies. all blood leaving digestive tract goes to liver before any other part of the body*
bile
 
stored in the gallbladder and used in the small intestine to emulsify and absorb fats
glucose
 
(sugar) removed from blood to synthesize glycogen (starch)
glycogen
 
(starch) retained for later use and is the storage form of glucose
detoxifying
 
liver detoxifies by transforming toxic products into less harmful compounds to maintain normal glucose levels in the blood
endocrine gland
 
as a gland, the pancreas secretes insulin directly into the bloodstream
exocrine gland
 
pancreas produces digestive enzymes that pass into the duodenum
gallbladder
 
saclike structure that serves as a storage area for bile, which is produced by the liver
common bile duct
 
when bile is needed for digestion, the gallbladder is released into the duodenum through this duct
or/o
 
mouth
stomat/o
 
mouth
gloss/o
 
tongue
lingu/o
 
tongue
bucc/o
 
cheeck
cheil/o
 
lip
labi/o
 
lip
dent/o
 
teeth
odont/o
 
teeth
gingiv/o
 
gums
sail/o
 
saliva, salivary glands
esophag/o
 
esophagus
pharyng/o
 
pharynx (throat)
gastr/o
 
stomach
pylor/o
 
pylorus
duoden/o
 
duodenum (first part of small intestine
enter/o
 
intestine (usually small intestine)
jejun/o
 
jejunum
ile/o
 
ileum
append/o
 
appendix
appendic/o
 
appendix
col/o
 
colon
colon/o
 
colon
rect/o
 
anus
proct/o
 
anus, rectum
an/o
 
anus
hepat/o
 
liver
pancreat/o
 
pancreas
chol/e
 
bile, gall
cholecyst/o
 
gallballder
-orexia
 
appetite
-pepsia
 
digestion
-prandial
 
meal
asymptomatic
 
without symptoms
gastroenterology
 
concerned with digestive diseases
ulcer
 
circumscribed open sore on the skin or mucous membranes within the body
Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD)
 
develops in the parts of the GI tract at are exposed
Helicobacter pylori
 
leading cause of PUD, antibiotics are used to treat PUD
exacerbate
 
intensify
ulcerative colitis
 
chronic inflammatory disease of the large intestine and rectum
hernia
 
protrusion of any organ, tissue, or structure
inguinal hernia
 
develops in the groin 
strangulated hernia
 
when blood supply to hernia is cut off, necrosis with gangrene may occur
diaphragmatic hernia
 
congenital disorder
hiatal hernia
 
lower part of the esophagus and top of stomach slides through an opening (hiatus) in the diaphragm 
gastroesophogeal reflux disease (GERD)
 
back-flow of gastric contents into the esophagus due to a malfunction of the sphincter muscle
hemorrhoids
 
enlarged veins in the mucous membrane of the anal canal from straining during bowl movements, pregnancy, and standing for sitting for long periods
hepatitis
 
inflammatory condition of the liver
parenteral
 
when the cause of hepatitis A is transmitted through routes other than the mouth
jaundice, icterus
 
yellowing of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclerae of the eyes
diverticulosis
 
condition in which small blisters develop in the inner lining of the large intestine and may balloon through the intestinal wall
diverticulitis
 
inflamed blisters in the large intestine
anorexia
 
lack or loss of appetite
appendicitis
 
inflammation of the appendix, usually due to obstruction or infection
cachexia
 
physical wasting that includes loss of weight and muscle mass; commonly associated with AIDS and cancer
cholelithiasis
 
presence or formation of gallstones in the gallbladder or common bile duct
cirrhosis
 
scarring and dysfunction of the liver caused by chronic liver disease
colic
 
spasm in any hollow or tubular soft organ especially in the colon, accompanied by pain
Crohn disease
 
chronic inflammation, usually of the ileum, but possibly affecting any portion of the intestinal tract
dysentery
 
inflammation of the intestine due to contaminated water
dyspepsia
 
epigastric discomfort felt after eating (indigestion)
dysphagia
 
inability or difficulty in swallowing (aphagia)
halitosis
 
offensive, or "bad" breath
hematemesis
 
vomiting of blood from bleeding in the stomach or esophagus
irritable bowl syndrome (IBS)
 
abdominal pain and altered bowl function, usually women have this, also called spastic colon
obesity
 
excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds body's skeletal and physical standards
peristalsis
 
progressive, wavelike movements that occur involuntary
regurgitation
 
backward flowing
steatorrhea
 
passage of fat in large amounts in the feces due to failure to digest and absorb it
upper GI
 
endoscopy of the esophagus (esophagoscopy), stomach (gastroscopy), and duodenum (duodenoscopy)
lower GI
 
endoscopy of the colon (colonoscopy), sigmoid colon (sigmoidoscopy), and rectum and anal canal (proctoscopy)
liver function tests (LFTs)
 
group of blood tests that evaluate liver injury, liver function, and conditions often associated with the biliary tract
barium enema (BE)
 
radiographic examination of the rectum and colon following enema administration of barium sulfate into the rectum
barium swallow
 
radiographic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine following oral administration of barium sulfate
nasogastric intubation
 
instill medication, food, or fluids
bariatric surgery
 
group of procedures that treat morbid obesity, a condition which arises from severe accumulation of excess weight as fatty tissue
colostomy
 
creation of an opening of a portion of colon through the abdominal wall to its outside surface in order to divert fecal flow to a colostomy bag
lithotripsy
 
procedure for crushing a stone and eliminating its fragments either surgically or using ultrasonic shock waves
antacids
 
counteract of neutralize acidity
antiemetics
 
control nausea and vomiting by blocking nerve impulses to vomiting center of the brain
laxatives
 
treat constipation by increasing peristaltic activity in the large intestine or increasing water and electrolyte secretion into the bowl to induce defecation
GERD
 
gastroesophageal refulx disease
a.c.
 
before meals
b.i.d.
 
twice a day
hs
 
half strength
h.s. 
 
at bedtime
NPO, n.p.o
 
nothing by mouth
pc, p.c.
 
after meals
p.o.
 
by mouth
p.r.n.
 
as required
qAM
 
every morning
q.d.
 
every day
q.h.
 
every hour
q.2h.
 
every two hours
q.i.d.
 
four times a day
q.o.d.
 
every other day
qPM
 
every evening
t.i.d.
 
three times a day
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