Chapter 6 Medical Terminology

133 cards

anatomy and physiology. sentence.


 
  
Created May 16, 2009
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britt0359

 

 
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1
gastrointestinal system
 
(GI) digestive system, consists of a digestive tube called the GI tract
2
GI tract
 
extends from the mouth to the anus
1. mouth
2. pharynx (throat)
3. esophagus
4....
3
digestive system
 
included are the accessory organs of the digestive system: the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
4
oral cavity
 
mouth
5
bolus
 
food is broken down mechanically (teeth) and chemically (saliva) and the formed into a mass...
6
teeth
 
mechanically break down food (mastication)
7
dentin
 
the main structure of the took covered by a hard enamel
8
pulp
 
contains nerves and blood vessels
9
gingiva
 
fleshy tissue known as gums
10
deglutition
 
tongue pushes food into the mouth for swallowing
11
two structures that form the roof of the mouth
 
hard palate (anterior portion), and soft palate (posterior portion)
12
pharynx
 
lowest portion divides into two tubes known as the trachea and esophogus
13
trachea
 
tube that leads to the lungs
14
esophogus
 
tube that leads to the stomach
15
epiglottis
 
small flap of cartilage that covers the trachea during swallowing
16
duodenum
 
stomach extends from the esophagus to the first part of the small intestine
17
lower esophageal (cardiac) sphincter
 
composed of muscle fibers that constrict once food has passed into the stomach, prevents stomach...
18
stomach produces...
 
digestive glands produce hyrdrochloric acid (HCl) and enzymes
19
chyme
 
stomach turns the bolus into a semiliquid form 
20
pyloric sphincter
 
regulates the speed and movement of chyme into the small intestine and prohibits back-flow
21
peristalsis
 
rhythmic muscle contractions
22
small intestine
 
1. duodenum (10 inches)
2. jejunum (8 feet)
3. ileum (12 feet)
23
pancreas and liver
 
 with the help of additional enzymes, digestion is completed in the small intestine
24
villi
 
nutrients are absorbed through these finger-like projections
25
large intestine (colon)
 
begins at the end of the ileum and extends through the anus, it absorbs water and minerals...
26
accessory organs of digestion
 
liver, gallbladder, and pancreas play a vital role in the proper digestion and absorption of...
27
liver
 
produces bile and removes glucose to turn it into glycogen and detoxifies. all blood leaving...
28
bile
 
stored in the gallbladder and used in the small intestine to emulsify and absorb fats
29
glucose
 
(sugar) removed from blood to synthesize glycogen (starch)
30
glycogen
 
(starch) retained for later use and is the storage form of glucose
31
detoxifying
 
liver detoxifies by transforming toxic products into less harmful compounds to maintain normal...
32
endocrine gland
 
as a gland, the pancreas secretes insulin directly into the bloodstream
33
exocrine gland
 
pancreas produces digestive enzymes that pass into the duodenum
34
gallbladder
 
saclike structure that serves as a storage area for bile, which is produced by the liver
35
common bile duct
 
when bile is needed for digestion, the gallbladder is released into the duodenum through this...
36
or/o
 
mouth
37
stomat/o
 
mouth
38
gloss/o
 
tongue
39
lingu/o
 
tongue
40
bucc/o
 
cheeck
41
cheil/o
 
lip
42
labi/o
 
lip
43
dent/o
 
teeth
44
odont/o
 
teeth
45
gingiv/o
 
gums
46
sail/o
 
saliva, salivary glands
47
esophag/o
 
esophagus
48
pharyng/o
 
pharynx (throat)
49
gastr/o
 
stomach
50
pylor/o
 
pylorus
51
duoden/o
 
duodenum (first part of small intestine
52
enter/o
 
intestine (usually small intestine)
53
jejun/o
 
jejunum
54
ile/o
 
ileum
55
append/o
 
appendix
56
appendic/o
 
appendix
57
col/o
 
colon
58
colon/o
 
colon
59
rect/o
 
anus
60
proct/o
 
anus, rectum
61
an/o
 
anus
62
hepat/o
 
liver
63
pancreat/o
 
pancreas
64
chol/e
 
bile, gall
65
cholecyst/o
 
gallballder
66
-orexia
 
appetite
67
-pepsia
 
digestion
68
-prandial
 
meal
69
asymptomatic
 
without symptoms
70
gastroenterology
 
concerned with digestive diseases
71
ulcer
 
circumscribed open sore on the skin or mucous membranes within the body
72
Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD)
 
develops in the parts of the GI tract at are exposed
73
Helicobacter pylori
 
leading cause of PUD, antibiotics are used to treat PUD
74
exacerbate
 
intensify
75
ulcerative colitis
 
chronic inflammatory disease of the large intestine and rectum
76
hernia
 
protrusion of any organ, tissue, or structure
77
inguinal hernia
 
develops in the groin 
78
strangulated hernia
 
when blood supply to hernia is cut off, necrosis with gangrene may occur
79
diaphragmatic hernia
 
congenital disorder
80
hiatal hernia
 
lower part of the esophagus and top of stomach slides through an opening (hiatus) in the diaphragm 
81
gastroesophogeal reflux disease (GERD)
 
back-flow of gastric contents into the esophagus due to a malfunction of the sphincter muscle
82
hemorrhoids
 
enlarged veins in the mucous membrane of the anal canal from straining during bowl movements,...
83
hepatitis
 
inflammatory condition of the liver
84
parenteral
 
when the cause of hepatitis A is transmitted through routes other than the mouth
85
jaundice, icterus
 
yellowing of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclerae of the eyes
86
diverticulosis
 
condition in which small blisters develop in the inner lining of the large intestine and may...
87
diverticulitis
 
inflamed blisters in the large intestine
88
anorexia
 
lack or loss of appetite
89
appendicitis
 
inflammation of the appendix, usually due to obstruction or infection
90
cachexia
 
physical wasting that includes loss of weight and muscle mass; commonly associated with AIDS...
91
cholelithiasis
 
presence or formation of gallstones in the gallbladder or common bile duct
92
cirrhosis
 
scarring and dysfunction of the liver caused by chronic liver disease
93
colic
 
spasm in any hollow or tubular soft organ especially in the colon, accompanied by pain
94
Crohn disease
 
chronic inflammation, usually of the ileum, but possibly affecting any portion of the intestinal...
95
dysentery
 
inflammation of the intestine due to contaminated water
96
dyspepsia
 
epigastric discomfort felt after eating (indigestion)
97
dysphagia
 
inability or difficulty in swallowing (aphagia)
98
halitosis
 
offensive, or "bad" breath
99
hematemesis
 
vomiting of blood from bleeding in the stomach or esophagus
100
irritable bowl syndrome (IBS)
 
abdominal pain and altered bowl function, usually women have this, also called spastic colon
101
obesity
 
excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds body's skeletal and physical standards
102
peristalsis
 
progressive, wavelike movements that occur involuntary
103
regurgitation
 
backward flowing
104
steatorrhea
 
passage of fat in large amounts in the feces due to failure to digest and absorb it
105
upper GI
 
endoscopy of the esophagus (esophagoscopy), stomach (gastroscopy), and duodenum (duodenoscopy)
106
lower GI
 
endoscopy of the colon (colonoscopy), sigmoid colon (sigmoidoscopy), and rectum and anal canal...
107
liver function tests (LFTs)
 
group of blood tests that evaluate liver injury, liver function, and conditions often associated...
108
barium enema (BE)
 
radiographic examination of the rectum and colon following enema administration of barium sulfate...
109
barium swallow
 
radiographic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine following oral administration...
110
nasogastric intubation
 
instill medication, food, or fluids
111
bariatric surgery
 
group of procedures that treat morbid obesity, a condition which arises from severe accumulation...
112
colostomy
 
creation of an opening of a portion of colon through the abdominal wall to its outside surface...
113
lithotripsy
 
procedure for crushing a stone and eliminating its fragments either surgically or using ultrasonic...
114
antacids
 
counteract of neutralize acidity
115
antiemetics
 
control nausea and vomiting by blocking nerve impulses to vomiting center of the brain
116
laxatives
 
treat constipation by increasing peristaltic activity in the large intestine or increasing...
117
GERD
 
gastroesophageal refulx disease
118
a.c.
 
before meals
119
b.i.d.
 
twice a day
120
hs
 
half strength
121
h.s. 
 
at bedtime
122
NPO, n.p.o
 
nothing by mouth
123
pc, p.c.
 
after meals
124
p.o.
 
by mouth
125
p.r.n.
 
as required
126
qAM
 
every morning
127
q.d.
 
every day
128
q.h.
 
every hour
129
q.2h.
 
every two hours
130
q.i.d.
 
four times a day
131
q.o.d.
 
every other day
132
qPM
 
every evening
133
t.i.d.
 
three times a day


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