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Side ASide B
(GI) digestive system, consists of a digestive tube called the GI tract
extends from the mouth to the anus1. mouth2. pharynx (throat)3. esophagus4. stomach5. small...
included are the accessory organs of the digestive system: the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
food is broken down mechanically (teeth) and chemically (saliva) and the formed into a mass...
mechanically break down food (mastication)
the main structure of the took covered by a hard enamel
contains nerves and blood vessels
fleshy tissue known as gums
tongue pushes food into the mouth for swallowing
two structures that form the roof of the mouth
hard palate (anterior portion), and soft palate (posterior portion)
lowest portion divides into two tubes known as the trachea and esophogus
tube that leads to the lungs
tube that leads to the stomach
small flap of cartilage that covers the trachea during swallowing
stomach extends from the esophagus to the first part of the small intestine
lower esophageal (cardiac) sphincter
composed of muscle fibers that constrict once food has passed into the stomach, prevents stomach...
digestive glands produce hyrdrochloric acid (HCl) and enzymes
stomach turns the bolus into a semiliquid form
regulates the speed and movement of chyme into the small intestine and prohibits back-flow
rhythmic muscle contractions
1. duodenum (10 inches)2. jejunum (8 feet)3. ileum (12 feet)
pancreas and liver
with the help of additional enzymes, digestion is completed in the small intestine
nutrients are absorbed through these finger-like projections
large intestine (colon)
begins at the end of the ileum and extends through the anus, it absorbs water and minerals...
accessory organs of digestion
liver, gallbladder, and pancreas play a vital role in the proper digestion and absorption of...
produces bile and removes glucose to turn it into glycogen and detoxifies. all blood leaving...
stored in the gallbladder and used in the small intestine to emulsify and absorb fats
(sugar) removed from blood to synthesize glycogen (starch)
(starch) retained for later use and is the storage form of glucose
liver detoxifies by transforming toxic products into less harmful compounds to maintain normal...
as a gland, the pancreas secretes insulin directly into the bloodstream
pancreas produces digestive enzymes that pass into the duodenum
saclike structure that serves as a storage area for bile, which is produced by the liver
common bile duct
when bile is needed for digestion, the gallbladder is released into the duodenum through this...
saliva, salivary glands
duodenum (first part of small intestine
intestine (usually small intestine)
concerned with digestive diseases
circumscribed open sore on the skin or mucous membranes within the body
Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD)
develops in the parts of the GI tract at are exposed
leading cause of PUD, antibiotics are used to treat PUD
chronic inflammatory disease of the large intestine and rectum
protrusion of any organ, tissue, or structure
develops in the groin
when blood supply to hernia is cut off, necrosis with gangrene may occur
lower part of the esophagus and top of stomach slides through an opening (hiatus) in the diaphragm
gastroesophogeal reflux disease (GERD)
back-flow of gastric contents into the esophagus due to a malfunction of the sphincter muscle
enlarged veins in the mucous membrane of the anal canal from straining during bowl movements,...
inflammatory condition of the liver
when the cause of hepatitis A is transmitted through routes other than the mouth
yellowing of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclerae of the eyes
condition in which small blisters develop in the inner lining of the large intestine and may...
inflamed blisters in the large intestine
lack or loss of appetite
inflammation of the appendix, usually due to obstruction or infection
physical wasting that includes loss of weight and muscle mass; commonly associated with AIDS...
presence or formation of gallstones in the gallbladder or common bile duct
scarring and dysfunction of the liver caused by chronic liver disease
spasm in any hollow or tubular soft organ especially in the colon, accompanied by pain
chronic inflammation, usually of the ileum, but possibly affecting any portion of the intestinal...
inflammation of the intestine due to contaminated water
epigastric discomfort felt after eating (indigestion)
inability or difficulty in swallowing (aphagia)
offensive, or "bad" breath
vomiting of blood from bleeding in the stomach or esophagus
irritable bowl syndrome (IBS)
abdominal pain and altered bowl function, usually women have this, also called spastic colon
excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds body's skeletal and physical standards
progressive, wavelike movements that occur involuntary
passage of fat in large amounts in the feces due to failure to digest and absorb it
endoscopy of the esophagus (esophagoscopy), stomach (gastroscopy), and duodenum (duodenoscopy)
endoscopy of the colon (colonoscopy), sigmoid colon (sigmoidoscopy), and rectum and anal canal...
liver function tests (LFTs)
group of blood tests that evaluate liver injury, liver function, and conditions often associated...
barium enema (BE)
radiographic examination of the rectum and colon following enema administration of barium sulfate...
radiographic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine following oral administration...
instill medication, food, or fluids
group of procedures that treat morbid obesity, a condition which arises from severe accumulation...
creation of an opening of a portion of colon through the abdominal wall to its outside surface...
procedure for crushing a stone and eliminating its fragments either surgically or using ultrasonic...
counteract of neutralize acidity
control nausea and vomiting by blocking nerve impulses to vomiting center of the brain
treat constipation by increasing peristaltic activity in the large intestine or increasing...
gastroesophageal refulx disease
twice a day
nothing by mouth
every two hours
four times a day
every other day
three times a day