Chapter 6: Learning

Psych Test 2; Chapter 6 Of Weiten Text; Vocab Words

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Side ASide B
any relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience
involves learning associations between events that occur in an organism's environment
classical conditioning
a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally...
unconditioned stimulus (US)
a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning
unconditioned response (UR)
an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning
conditioned stimulus (CS)
a previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke...
conditioned response (CR)
a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning
drawn forth (in regards to conditioned responses in classical conditioning)
any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli in classical conditioning
refers to the initial stage of learning a new response tendency
the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned...
renewal effect
if a response is extinguished in a different environment than it was acquired, the extinguished...
stimulus generalization
occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the...
stimulus discrimination
occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond...
higher-order conditioning
a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus
operant conditioning
a form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences
occurs when an event following a response increases an organism's tendency to make that response
Skinner box
a small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is systematically recorded...
to send forth (in regards to responses in operant conditioning)
reinforcement contingencies
the circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers
cumulative recorder
creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a Skinner box as a function of...
the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response
resistance to extinction
occurs when an organism continues to make a response after delivery of the reinforcer for it...
discriminative stimuli
cues that influence operant behavior by indicating the probable consequences (reinforcement...
primary reinforcers
events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs
secondary, or conditioned, reinforcers
events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers
schedule of reinforcement
a specific pattern of presentation of reinforcers over timeevents that are inherently reinforcing...
continuous reinforcement
occurs when every instance of a designated response is reinforced (soda machine.) It is both...
intermittent reinforcement
occurs when a designated response is reinforced only some of the time
fixed-ratio (FR) schedule
the reinforcer is given after a fixed number of nonreinforced responses. A factory worker is...
variable-ratio (VR) schedule
the reinforcer is given after a variable number of nonreinforced responses. Slot machine--behavior...
fixed-interval (FI) schedule
the reinforcer is given for the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has...
variable-interval (VI) schedule
the reinforcer is given for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed....
positive reinforcement
occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding...
negative reinforcement
occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of an aversive...
escape learning
an organism acquires a response that decreases or ends some aversive stimulation
avoidance learning
an organism acquires a response that prevents some aversive stimulation from occurring
occurs when an event following a response weakens the tendency to make that response. Decreases...
latent learning
learning that is not apparent from behavior when it first occurs
observational learning
occurs when an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called...
behavior modification
a systematic approach to changing behavior through the application of the principles of conditioning
behavioral contract
a written agreement outlining a promise to adhere to the contingencies of a behavior modification...
evaluative conditioning
consists of efforts to transfer the emotion attached to a US to a new CS
positive punishment
inflicting something bad to emphasize the good (spanking.) Decreases all behavior
negative punishment
removal of something good. Decreases all behavior
one trial learning
taste aversion (Garcia effect)
vicarious learning
learning through observation of others' behavior (TV)

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