Chapter 6: Learning

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Chapter 6: Learning

Psych Test 2; Chapter 6 Of Weiten Text; Vocab Words

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learning
 
any relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience
conditioning
 
involves learning associations between events that occur in an organism's environment
classical conditioning
 
a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus (Pavlovian conditioning)
unconditioned stimulus (US)
 
a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning
unconditioned response (UR)
 
an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning
conditioned stimulus (CS)
 
a previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response
conditioned response (CR)
 
a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning
elicited
 
drawn forth (in regards to conditioned responses in classical conditioning)
trial
 
any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli in classical conditioning
acquisition
 
refers to the initial stage of learning a new response tendency
extinction
 
the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency
spontaneous recovery
 
the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus
renewal effect
 
if a response is extinguished in a different environment than it was acquired, the extinguished response will reappear if the animal is returned to the original environment where the acquisition took place
stimulus generalization
 
occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus
stimulus discrimination
 
occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus
higher-order conditioning
 
a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus
operant conditioning
 
a form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences
reinforcement
 
occurs when an event following a response increases an organism's tendency to make that response
Skinner box
 
a small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is systematically recorded while the consequences of the response are controlled
emit
 
to send forth (in regards to responses in operant conditioning)
reinforcement contingencies
 
the circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers
cumulative recorder
 
creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a Skinner box as a function of time
shaping
 
the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response
resistance to extinction
 
occurs when an organism continues to make a response after delivery of the reinforcer for it has been terminated
discriminative stimuli
 
cues that influence operant behavior by indicating the probable consequences (reinforcement or nonreinforcement) of a response
primary reinforcers
 
events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs
secondary, or conditioned, reinforcers
 
events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers
schedule of reinforcement
 
a specific pattern of presentation of reinforcers over timeevents that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs
continuous reinforcement
 
occurs when every instance of a designated response is reinforced (soda machine.) It is both learned and unlearned very quickly
intermittent reinforcement
 
occurs when a designated response is reinforced only some of the time
fixed-ratio (FR) schedule
 
the reinforcer is given after a fixed number of nonreinforced responses. A factory worker is paid for X products he assembles
variable-ratio (VR) schedule
 
the reinforcer is given after a variable number of nonreinforced responses. Slot machine--behavior is rewarded at an unpatterned time and keeps the organism going. Can perpetuate superstitious behavior
fixed-interval (FI) schedule
 
the reinforcer is given for the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has elapsed. Waiting for mail--after a cerain period of time, your waiting is rewarded by mail
variable-interval (VI) schedule
 
the reinforcer is given for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed. The interval length varies around a predetermined average. The time frame is not set. In surfing, this is the equivalent to waiting for the next good wave
positive reinforcement
 
occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus
negative reinforcement
 
occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus. This perpetuates superstitions and obsessive-compulsive behavior
escape learning
 
an organism acquires a response that decreases or ends some aversive stimulation
avoidance learning
 
an organism acquires a response that prevents some aversive stimulation from occurring
punishment
 
occurs when an event following a response weakens the tendency to make that response. Decreases all behavior
latent learning
 
learning that is not apparent from behavior when it first occurs
observational learning
 
occurs when an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models
behavior modification
 
a systematic approach to changing behavior through the application of the principles of conditioning
behavioral contract
 
a written agreement outlining a promise to adhere to the contingencies of a behavior modification program
evaluative conditioning
 
consists of efforts to transfer the emotion attached to a US to a new CS
positive punishment
 
inflicting something bad to emphasize the good (spanking.) Decreases all behavior
negative punishment
 
removal of something good. Decreases all behavior
one trial learning
 
taste aversion (Garcia effect)
vicarious learning
 
learning through observation of others' behavior (TV)
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