Chapter 6 and 7

53 cards

Learning objectives for Chapter 6 and 7. Chapter 6 is the "Tour of the Cell" and Chapter 7 is the "Membrane Structure and Function".


 
  
Created Feb 27, 2010
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jegray_18

 

 
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1
Distinguish between magnification and resolution
 
Magnification is making an image larger than its original size
Resolution is having a clear...
2
What are the two types of microscopes?
 
Light and Electron
3
What is a Light Microscope?
 
Visible light is passed through the specimen and then through glass lenses. [Refracted]
4
What is an Electron microscope?
 
A beam of electrons through the specimen or onto its surface. 
5
Distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
 
Prokaryotic: No nucleus, DNA is "Naked", No histones, Doesn't form into chromosomes, Contains...
6
Why are there both upper and lower limits to cell size?
 
A cell has to be large enough to contain the necessary components to live, and it cannot be...
7
Why is compartmentalization important in eukaryotic cells?
 
A cell's compartments provide different local environments that accommodate specific metabolic...
8
Describe the structure and function of the nucleus.
 
Involves the nuclear envelope, nucleolus and chromatin.
Regulates all cell activity. 
9
Describe the structure and function of a eukaryotic ribosome.
 
Made of rRNA and protein. They carry out protein synthesis. 
Build proteins in two...
10
List the components of the endomembrane system. 
 
Nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, various kinds of vacuoles,...
11
What functions does the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes,...
 
Nuclear envelope: Encloses the nucleus - separates contents from the cytoplasm
Endoplasmic...
12
Describe the types of vacuoles and explain their function differences.
 
Food, contractile, central
Food vacuoles: Formed by phagocytosis. Responsible for food digestion. 
Contractile...
13
Describe three examples of intracellular digestion by lysosomes.
 
Phagocytosis: When smaller organisms or other food particles are eaten Autophagy: A damaged...
14
Explain the role of peroxisomes in eukaryotic cells.
 
Peroxisomes; oxidative organelles [not part of endomembrane system]
ROLE = Contain enzymes...
15
Describe the structure and functions of a mitochondrian.
 
STRUCTURE = Outer membrane, Inner membrane, Intermembrane space, Matrix, Cristae
2 MAIN...
16
Explain the importance of compartmentalization in mitrochondrial function.
 
Each perform different functions, each has a greater surface area, "specialized"
17
Define amyloplast.
 
A colorless plastid that stores starch and occurs in cells of plant storage.
18
Define chromoplast.
 
(No chlorophyll, usually yellow or orange) - Chromoplasts are plastids responsible for...
19
Define chloroplast.
 
plastid containing chlorophyll and other pigments; in plants that carry out photosynthesis....
20
Identify the three functional compartments of a chloroplast.
 
Stroma, Intermembrane space, Thylakoid lumen
21
Explain the importance of compartmentalization in chloroplast function.
 
Enables the chloroplast to convert light energy to chemical energy during photosynthesis. 
22
Describe the functions of the cytoskeleton.
 
Plays a major role in organizing the structures and activities of the cell. 
23
Describe the structure, monomers and functions of microtubules.
 
Structure: Thick(est) hollow rods. The wall is constructed from tubulin [a globular protein]....
24
Describe the structure, monomers and functions of microfilaments.
 
Structure: Thin(nest) - built from molecules of a actin (globular protein). Twisted double...
25
Describe the structure, monomers and functions of intermediate filaments.
 
Structure: "In between size" - larger than microfilaments but smaller than microtubules. Diverse...
26
Explain the ultrastructure of cilia and flagella.
 
Order from "outer to inner": 1. Outer microtubule doublet (both included in microtubules)  -->...
27
Motion of flagella and cilia.
 
Flagella; "Undulates" - direction of swimming [snake like]
Cilia: "Back-and-Fourth Motion"...
28
Describe the structure of plant cell walls.
*Describe FUNCTION, as well.
 
*extracellular structure - distinguishes them from animal cells
Structure:  Made of...
29
Describe the structure of intercellular junctions found in plant cells. Also, describe the...
 
Plasmodesmata - Perforates plant cell walls, creating channels between adjacent plant cells
*Cytosol...
30
Describe the structure of intercellular junctions found in animal cells. Also, describe the...
 
Tight junctions, Desmosomes, Gap junctions (all 3 are especially common in epithelial tissue...
31
Describe the functions of the plasma membrane. 
What are the 3 ingredients of membranes?
(Also...
 
(ALL cells have one) Protection, isolation ["physical barrier"], communication, regulated transport...
32
Describe the functions of the fluid properties of the cell membrane.
 
Considered a "fluid mosaic" because the components [phospholipids] can move laterally [sideways]...
33
Describe how membrane fluidity is influenced by membrane composition and temperature.
 
Membrane composition; Membranes must be fluid to work properly. Saturated fats make it "stiff"...
34
Explain how hydrophobic interactions determine membrane structure and function.
 
Holds the membrane in place and what orients them so the phospholipid bilayer forms. Also -...
35
Distinguish between integral and peripheral proteins. Also know what their functions are. 
 
INTEGRAL; Penetrate the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer -permanently attached (many are...
36
Distinguish between channel and carrier proteins.
 
Channel; (Some are open or gated) - Provide a patheway for small ions to move directly through...
37
List the major functions of membrane proteins.
 
Transport, enzymatic activity, signal transduction, cell-cell recognition, intercellular joining,...
38
Describe factors that affect selective permeability of membranes.
 
Hormones, temperature, electrical charge of membrane, size
Electrical charge = charged ions...
39
Define diffusion [also include what causes it and why its a spontaneous process]
 
Diffusion; the movement of molecules of any substance so that they spread out evenly into the...
40
Explain why a concentration gradient of a substance across a membrane represents potential...
 
POTENTIAL energy is STORED energy; "it drives diffusion" - in general requires no energy
41
Define hypertonic solution.
 
Cell LOSES water to its environment - it "shrivels" and more than likely dies
42
Define hypotonic solution.
 
Cell GAINS water [too much] - therefore the cell will "burst" like an overfilled water balloon
43
Define isotonic solution.
 
NO net movement of water across the plasma membrane. At the same rate, water enters the cell...
44
Define osmosis. [Also predict the direction of water movement based upon differences in solute...
 
Osmosis; The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
*Involves tonicity;...
45
Explain how bound water affects the osmotic behavior of dilute biological fluids.
 
(Doesn't affect it a lot) - Tight clustering of water molecules around the hydrophilic solute...
46
Describe how living cells with and without walls regulate water balance.
 
With walls; "the cell wall will expand only so much before it exerts a back pressure on the...
47
Distinguish among osmosis, facilitated diffusion and active transport. 
 
Osmosis; diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
Facilitated diffusion;...
48
What is the "Cell Theory"?
 
Theory that cells form the fundamental structural and functional units of all living organisms
49
What is exocytosis?
 
When the cell secretes certain biological molecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma...
50
Explain how potential energy generated by transmembrane solute gradients can be harvested by...
 
This is the electrochemical gradient. 
Electrochemical Gradient = Variation of both...
51
Explain how large molecules are transported across a cell membrane.
 
In some instances, [receptor-mediated] Endocytosis ("pockets") and Proteins help by recognizing...
52
Define pinocytosis.
 
Type of endocytosis - cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolve solutes
53
Define receptor-mediated endocytosis.
 
Movement of specific molecules into a cell by the inward budding - enables cell to acquire...


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