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Chapter 26: Romanticism In Classical Forms

Chapter 26 From A History Of Western Music
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Side ASide B
Besides home music making, what other sector of musical performance saw phenomenal growth during the Romantic period?
public concerts
In addition to professional orchestras and virtuoso's, what other kinds of institutions also arose with missions to provide public performances of art music?
Amateur Orchestras, Choral Societies and entrepreneurs
What type/ genre of art music also moved at this time from being " privately"  performed to "public" performance? 
chamber music
Over what initial period did "classical" or regularly repeating repertoires begin to form, and what genre of music and what composers lead the way?
1780-1870; starting with oratorios of Handel and Haydn; Beethoven, Mozart and Haydn
The text points out that all of this came with and helped provide a new historical awareness, resulting in a rich tension between what two things?
Romantic content and classic genres and forms
How did orchestras grow in the number of expected players over the nineteenth centuries?
40-90
When did the tuba join the brass section?
1830's
In what year did Louis Spohr introduce the concept of conducting with a baton?
1820
What kinds of music typically comprised a London Philharmonic program before 1850?
symphony, aria or choral composition, a concerto or chamber work, another vocal work and a closing symphony
What percentage of music programmed by the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra was from living composers in the 1780's, 1820 and 1870?
1780: 85%1820:75%1870:25%
The new seriousness of the repertoire was matched by a new seriousness in___________.
concert behavior
The text states that the history of orchestral music in the nineteenth century can be seen as a series or varied responses to the example of what composer?
Beethoven
For the mature Schubert and his fellow romantics, what was more important in music?
melodies
Who wrote the nineteenth century "bible" on orchestration?
Hector Berlioz
Because his music was too radical to win steady support, to what did Berlioz ( and Schumann) turn to as their chief profession?
music criticism
What other career did Berlioz later undertake with much success?
orchestral conducting
Summarize the story/ program of Berlioz's symphony fantastique.
dwells on passions aroused by his thoughts and fantasies about a woman whom he hopes to win
What did Berlioz call the melody/theme he used in each movement to represent the obsessive image of his beloved?
idee fixe
What did Berlioz supply to his listeners ( besides the music itself) to help them understand the work?
An autobiographical program
How many movements comprise the Symphonie fantastique? What is the basic story for each movement?
5;
What famous gregorian chant does the piece also quote? In what movement is it heard? For what sacred "genre" was this chant originally composed?
Dies Irae in 5th movement. Symbol of dead from Requiem
Which Beethoven symphonies similarly introduced a recurring theme and developing it across all the movements?
5, 6 and 9
List 3 novel orchestration techniques/ ideas used by Berlioz in Symphonie fantastique.
muted strings, oboe off stage, violins play with wood of the bow.
List and briefly explain Berlioz's three other symphonies, all of them programatic.
1. Harold en Halie: features viola2. Romeo et Juliette: dramatic symphony3. Grand symphonie: 
In what year did Berlioz publish his famous book on orchestration?
1843
What are the programmatic associations of Mendelssohn's symphonies No. 2-5?
Geographic locations
Mendelssohn's genius for musical landscapes is also evident in his____________.
ovetures
How old was Mendelssohn when he composed his overture of A Midsummer Night's Dream?
17
How many years passed before he added the additional incidental music for this play, including his famous Wedding March?
17 years
How many piano concertos and violin concertos did Mendelssohn compose?
4 piano concertos and 1 violin concerto
Compared to Berlioz, was Mendelssohn's music more or less classic?
more
How did Schumann's 4th symphony reflect his knowledge/ appreciation of Schubert's Wanderer Fantasy for piano?
4 movements played without pause
Why is Schubert's piano quintet called " The Trout Quintet"?
because the fourth movement presents variations on a theme from his song, "The Trout"
Did Schubert, Mendelsson, and Schumann also compose chamber music inspired by the models of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven? did Berlioz?
yes; no
While the nineteenth century orchestra grew increasingly "professional", choir became, increasingly______________.
amateur
Why was choral music a particularly lucrative field for publishers?
each choir member needed their own part
Besides the love of music, what other believe about music encouraged the choral society movement?
democracy, social unity, ethical and spiritual values
Who conducted the revivals of Bach's great oratorio -style Passions and the B-Minor Mass and what year did he do this?
Mendelssohn; 1833-1834
How many performers had Bach written these works for, vocally and orchestrally?
8-12 singers and an orchestra of about 15
What are the titles of Mendelssohn's two oratorio's?
St. Paul and Elijah
What are Berlioz's two large/ orchestral works?
The Requiem and Te Deum
How big of an orchestra does the Berlioz Requiem require?
140 players
What was perhaps the favorite subject for the poetry of partsongs?
Nature
Did a permanent repertoire of such partsongs develop?
no
What was the original meaning of "a capella" and what new meaning did it achieve in the nineteenth century? Was this new meaning historically accurate?
"old/ contrapuntal style" now meant unaccompanied singing; yes
How did shape-note singing notation work?
shape of noteheads indicates solfeg syllables allowing for easy sightreading.


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