Chapter 24 - Biology - "Origin Of Species"

Biology Chapter 24
Created Feb 7, 2011
by bvolos
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Speciation
origination of a new species, shown in fossil record
macroevolution
Term that means an evolutionary change above the species level, including the appearance of...
2 Basic Patterns of Evolutionary Change
Anagenesis and Cladogenesis
Anagenesis
(Strictly Phyletic evolution, meaning it can only apply to one species) An accumulation of...
Cladogenesis
(Branching evolution, meaning it can promote biodiversity by increasing the number of species)...
Biological Species Concept
Follows Ersnt Mayr's definition of "a population or group of populations whose members have...
Types of Reproductive Isolation
Prezygotic and Postzygotic Barriers make this up.
Reproductive Isolation
Occurs when the existence of biological factors impede individuals from two different species...
Prezygotic Barriers
Impede mating between species or hinder fertilization of ova if species do mate. 
Types of Prezygotic Barriers: pre-mating
Temporal, Habitat, Behavioral 
Types of Prezygotic Barriers: pre-fertilization
Mechanical and Gametic
Habitat isolation
Type of prezygotic barrier occurs before mating when two species that occupy different habitats...
Temporal Isolation
Type of prezygotic barrier that occurs before mating attempt when species that breed during...
Behavioral Isolation
Type of prezygotic barrier that occurs before mating attempt because courtship rituals that...
Mehcanical Isolation
Type of prezygotic barrier occurs after mating attempt when morphological differences between...
Gametic Isolation
Type of prezygotic barrier occurs after mating attempt when sperm of one species may not be...
Types of postzygotic barriers
reduced hybrid viability, reduced hybrid fertility, and reduced hybrid breakdown. 
Reduced Hybrid Viability
Postzygotic barrier that occurs when the genes of different parent species may interact in...
Reduced hybrid fertility
Postzygotic barrier that occurs when the chromosomes of the two parent species differ in number...
Reduced hybrid breakdown
Postzygotic barrier that occurs because some first generation hybrids are viable and fertile,...
Postzygotic Barriers 
if sperm from one species does overcome prezygotic barriers, these often prevent the hybrid...
Limitations of Biological Species Concept.
These include fossils, asexual organisms, organisms that produce viable hybrids, and organisms...
Morphological Species Concept
This classification system characterizes body shape, size, and other structural features. It...
Paleontological Species Concept
This classification system focuses on morphologically discrete species only from fossil record,...
Ecological Species concept
This classification system views a species based on its ecological role, like its diet, and...
Phylogenetic Species Concept
This classification system uses organisms with a unique genetic history, and traces physical...
Allopatric Speciation
When gene flow is interrupted when a population is divided into geographically isolated populations....
Sympatric Speciation
This takes place in geographically overlapping populations and includes chromosomal changes...
Polyploidy
A condition where some plant species have their origins in accidents during cell division that...
Autopolyploidy
When an individual that has more than 2 sets of chromosomes that are all derived from a single...
Allopolyploidy
A fertile polyploid of this sort represents a new species because it cannot mate with the parent....
Adaptive radiation
The evolution of many diversely adapted species from a common ancestor upon introduction to...
Punctuated equilibrium
The fossil record includes many episodes of species appearing in a stratum, remaining unchanged,...
Evolutionary novelties
These are when occasional major morphological transformation occurs from simple basic versions...
Exaptations
These are structures that evolve in one context but become co-opted for another
Heterochrony
An evolutionary change in the rate or timing of developmental events; for example: an organism's...
Allometric Growth
Proportioning that helps give a body part its specific form. Example: most salamanders live...
Paedomorphosis
This condition occurs when reproductive development accelerates compared to nonreproductive...
Homoectic genes
These determine spatial organization or placement of parts on a body
Hox genes
These are a class of homoectic genes thats provide positional information in an animal embryo...
pluralistic species concept
This classification system is focused on how a scientist can apply a different concept based...
Microevolution
Changes in allele frequency from one generation to the next.
Novel features
arise by modifications of existing structures
Sexual Selection
leads to sympatric speciation in animals


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