Chapter 23

European History
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Historians use the concept of a "Second" Industrial Revolution to refer to
A) the rise of heavy industries (coal, iron, and steel), railroads, and electricit-v in Great Britain after textiles and steam power in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
A) the rise of heavy industries (coal, iron, and steel), railroads, and electricit-v in Great Britain after textiles and steam power in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
A) antibiotics.
Which one of the following pairs of countries came to rival Britain as industrial powers?
A) Germany and the United States
Of the following, the country that was slowest to industrialize was
A) Russia.
The economic boom of 1871-1872 was
A) followed in 1873 by a severe economic crisis, inaugurating decades of unpredictable and socially destabilizing economic fluctuations.
As industrialization advanced, the two problems that began to plague entrepreneurs most were skyrocketing start-up costs and
A) the failure of consumption to keep pace with production.
In the late nineteenth century, industrialization tended to be capital intensive, which means that
large amounts of money were needed to buy expensive machinery and equipment
Arguably the single most important step taken to raise investor confidence was
A) the creation of the limited liability corporation.
In the late 1870s, France and Germany abandoned what longstanding liberal policy?
A) free trade
Women's massive entry into the service sector in the late nineteenth century accelerated
A) the division of occupations into male and female categories.
The principal stimulus for a consumer culture in the late nineteenth century was
A) department stores and mail-order catalogs.
Nation builders often connected national identity and pride with
A) industrial prosperity and imperial expansion.
The French followed up their colonization of Algeria by occupying
A) Tunisia.
Although cruelty abounded under imperialist rule, the European ruler known for inflicting the worst atrocities was
A) Belgian king Leopold 11.
In the early 1880s, a scramble among European countries for colonies in Africa was touched off by
A) Leopold of Belgium claiming a huge territory in the Congo region.
The discovery of this medicine removed a roadblock to European conquest of Africa.
A) quinine
Cecil Rhodes not only cornered the market in South African diamonds, but he also
A) believed that the world would be a better place if more of it was controlled by Britain.
The Indian National Congress, founded in 1885, was
A) organized by educated Indian elites who accepted aspects of British liberalism but occasionally challenged British rule.
In 1887, France created the Union of Indochina from the ancient states of Cochin China, Tonkin, Annam, and
A) Cambodia.
Japan escaped European imperialism as a result of all of the following except
A) its abandonment of Japanese culture in favor of Western arts and values.
In pursuing its program for modernization, the Meiji government
A) did not tolerate anyone who opposed modernization.
The marriage of American Jeanette Jerome to Lord Randolph Churchill reflected
A) the blurring of social distinctions between aristocrats and rich bankers and industrialists.
A sport that has become associated with the British but which originated in India is
A) polo.
In general. large numbers of emigrants departed from rural Sicily, Ireland. and Scandinavia because
A) the population was expanding so rapidly that these home countries did not have enough jobs to employ the growing labor pool.
Thousands of Sicilians left for northern Europe and the United States as a result of
A) Sicily's nearly worthless, eroded soil, caused by deforestation.
The establishment of maternal and child wellness societies was the result of
A) a Social Darwinist belief that workers needed these institutions to ensure that European "races" would be the most "fit" in an increasingly competitive world.
To understand and alleviate working-class poverty, some educated reformers in the nineteenth century established
A) settlement houses.
In 1893, the British Fabian Society helped to
A) found the Labour Party.
Which of the following authors wrote a series of books that reflected his concerns abou­social degeneration?
A) Emile Zola
The major new artistic movement that emerged from France in the 1800s, and was best characterized by the work of Edouard Manet and Claude Monet, was called
A) impressionism.
Nineteenth-century European graphic artists drew inspiration from Asia, particularly from
A) Japan.
In 1888, these London workers successfully struck to end fines of a day's wages for being a few minutes late for work.
A) match girls
The Second International (1889) was an organization that sought
A) Marxist communist revolution.
Socialism led to a number of working-class parties, of which the largest by 1890 was the
A) Social Democratic Party in Germany.
Nineteenth-century Marxist leaders  
A) often excluded women from their political parties, unions, and clubs for fear of losing the sense of "masculine camaraderie."
A) often excluded women from their political parties, unions, and clubs for fear of losing the sense of "masculine camaraderie."
A) an increase in sensational stories in newspapers and an emphasis on spreading information quickly.
The attempts of Bonapartist, Orl6anist, and Bourbon monarchist factions to regain power was resolved in favor of the republic when
A) the monarchist compromise candidate, the Comte de Chambord, refused to accept the tricolored French flag because he associated it with revolution and regicide.
What pretext did German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898) use to outlaw the German Social Democratic Party in 1878?
A) an unsuccessful assassination attempt on Emperor William I
One of the main purposes of the Dual Alliance concluded by Germany and Austria in 1879 was to
A) defend against Russian aggression, particularly in the Balkans.
Kaiser William 11 dismissed Bismarck because
A) he became convinced that Bismarck not only hindered his nationalistic plans but also might prove to be a rival for power.

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