Chapter 22

Chapter 22 European History
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In 1859, graffiti reading "VERDI," which appeared on the walls of Italian cities. represented
A) a cryptic call for Italian unification under the leadership of Vittorio Emmanuele Re d'Italia ("king of Italy").
The revolutions of 1848 led to all of the following developments except
A) the fall of the Second Empire.
The closing of cafes where politics might be discussed was an example of
A) Napoleon III's willingness to wantonly and ruthlessly suppress all political dissent and critical public dialogue regarding his government.
. Napoleon III offered the Austrian emperor Francis Joseph's brother, Maximilian,
A) control of Mexico and ultimately all of Central America.
The Crimean Nkar began as a war between
A) Russia and the Ottoman Empire.
The Crimean War (1853-1856) accomplished Napoleon III's goal of
A) severing the alliance between the Austrian Habsburgs and Russia.
In the Crimean War of 1853-1856, Britain and France fought to
A) defend the Ottoman Empire from dismemberment by Russia.
Florence Nightingale became famous in the mid-nineteenth century as
A) a nurse.
Alexander 11's Great Reforms inspired unrest and ethnic nationalism in the Russian Empire; the great irony of this situation is that the reforms were intended to
A) preserve the social hierarchy and maintain the status quo in Russia.
Although Tsar Alexander II freed the serfs, a free, mobile labor force was stymied by
A) the fact that former serfs remained tied to a system of communal landowning and decision making.
In exchange for French help in driving Austria out of Italy, Cavour offered Napoleon III
A) Savoy and the city of Nice.
Italian unification in 1861 was led by the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia because
A) it had industry, a good economy, a strong army, and the backing of France.
What enraged Cavour following the rout of the Austrians by Italian and French forces?
A) Napoleon signed a treaty with Francis Joseph granting Venetia to Austria.
William I appointed Otto von Bismarck chancellor in 1862 in the hopes that he would
A) put down the growing power of the liberals in the Prussian parliament.
By urging Austria to join Prussia in a war to save the provinces of Schleswig and Holstein from Danish territorial ambitions, Bismarck shrewdly
A) precipitated France's alliance with Russia, which provoked Francis Joseph to send troops to the Franco-Austrian border, thus dividing his army in half.
Bismarck sought to convince William I and the Junkers that a more powerful Germany could be built
A) not -"by speeches and majority decisions ... but by iron and blood."
The constitution of the newly united German state provided for a legislative assembly, the Reichstag, elected by universal male suffrage because Bismarck believed that
A) "ordinary" Germans would be more conservative and loyal to the monarchy than the liberals in the Prussian parliament.
Which of the following was not a reform granted by Emperor Francis Joseph in Austria-Hungary?
A) Compulsory military service ended for nobles and peasants.
Following Austria's defeat in the Austro-Prussian War, Francis Joseph reluctantly agreed to the establishment of a "dual monarchy," which granted Magyars
A) a restored Hungarian parliament with control over domestic matters in Hungary.
In Victorian Britain, a law was passed by Parliament that enabled women to
A) own property or keep wages they earned.
The sociocultural phenomenon referred to as "Victorianism" was unique in that
A) a British monarch had never influenced popular mores and manners to such a degree.

A) a British monarch had never influenced popular mores and manners to such a degree.
In 1848, the United States added which of the following to its territory

A) California
Many southern states of the young United States seceded to form the Confederate States of America in 1860, following
A) President Lincoln's promulgation of the Emancipation Proclamation.
The British made Canada a united, self-governing dominion in 1867, in part to
A) undercut a demand by the United States that it be allowed to annex Canada.
Joseph Lister applied Louis Pasteur's germ theory to
A) medicine, and he developed antiseptics.
Georges-Eugene Hausmann, who designed urban changes for Paris,
  A) worked to pipe clean water from the countryside to every dwelling in Paris.
Demands for educational reform from the mid-century developed primarily out of the concerns of
A) governments
Laws requiring education for children were difficult to enforce because
A) many poorer parents needed their children's help with farm work or domestic tasks.
East Indian troops of the British army launched the Indian Rebellion in 1857 because they were angered by tightening British control and by
A) British insistence that the soldiers use cartridges greased with cow and pig fat, which violated Hindu and Muslim religious rules, respectively.
The Government of India Act of 1858
A) transferred Indian government from the East India Company to the British government.
The Suez Canal, opened in 1869, connected the
A) Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea.
The bloody war that raged in China until 1864 pitted the French- and British-supported ruling Qing against
A) the Taiping and their supporters.
Mikhail Bakunin argued that the centralized political state was the root of social injustice and therefore must be destroyed, an ideology called
A) anarchism.
The commune in Paris in 1871 was promoted as a social revolution offering
A) the liberation of all workers, including women.
Realism in the arts rejected
A) romanticism and fervent religious sentiment.
Gustave Flaubert's novel Madame Bovary (1857), tdouard Manet's painting Olympia (1865), and Giuseppe Verdi's opera La Traviata (1853) all explored
A) women's sexuality.
Pope Pius IX and his The Syllabus of Errors (1864) put the Catholic church at odds with
A) progress, liberalism, and modern civilization.
European secularism after the mid-nineteenth century often led to a counterreaction exemplified by all of the following except
A) the founding of Creationist Societies that sponsored lectures purporting to disprove Darwin's On the Origin of Species.
Many Europeans thought that they could solve all social problems by a scientific analysis of facts known as
A) Positivism.
The English social theorist Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) argued that
A) the unfit should be allowed to perish so as not to block the path of progress
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