Chapter 22 US History

Chapter 22 US History Chapter 22 US History
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Imperialism
 
the policy of establishing colonies and building empires
Isolationism
 
separation from the political affairs of other countries
Reciprocity
 
the mutual lowering of tariff barriers
Arbitration
 
the settlement of a dispute by an impartial group
Maximilian
 
Austrian Prince installed by Napoleon as Mexico's Emperor
Charles Sumner
 
claimed that Britain owed America $2 billion dollars
William Seward
 
Secretary of State that helped acquire Alaska
3. Show how the French challenged the Monroe Doctrine in 1861.
 
• After Mexican debts were paid, all countries left but French remained
• France ignored the Monroe Doctrine and Napoleon III overthrew the Republic of Mexico
• Took advantage of Civil War
4. Describe two instances of confrontation with Great Britain that were settled by arbitration.
 
1st:
• Charles Sumner claimed that GB owed US $2 billion in damages from Civil War
• Britain did not want to risk war in Canada so Britain paid $15.5 million in the Treaty of Washington.
2nd:
• President Cleveland requested that British put Venezuela-British Guiana boundary dispute to arbitration.
• US felt it violated Monroe Doctrine
• Britain said it did not apply
5. Understanding Cause and Effect How did the writings of Captain Alfred T. Mahan lead to expanding the American navy?
 
• Mahan’s writings expressed that a modern nation needed sea power in order to become great
• Writings were read by leaders such as Theodore Roosevelt and it lead to more ships being built such 3 more battleships
neutrality
 
the refusal to take sides
Enrique Dupuy De Lome:
 
Spanish ambassador who called McKinley “weak and a bidder for the admiration for the crowd”
Yellow Journalism:
 
• Fanned public anger and exaggerated and fabricated stories
• Sold papers and encouraged war
• Printed letter from Enrique Dupoy Lome
• Papers blamed Spain for the Maine’s explosion and “Remember the Maine” became the battle cry
3. List the key events leading to war with Spain over Cuba.
 
• Cuban people were placed in “reconcentration camps” where many died
• US followed isolationism until Yellow Journalism started to encourage war
• McKinley demanded that Spain give Cuba independence and thus Congress demanded that Spain evacuate the island.
• Spain did not reply
5. How did the United States justify going to war with Spain given a previous policy of noninvolvement?
 
• Cleveland warned that if “the useless sacrifice of human life” went on, the United States would abandon the policy
• McKinley demanded that Spain give Cuba independence.
• Congress demanded that Spain evacuate the island, no reply was made
Platt Amendment:
 
• Cuba should allow the United States the right to buy or lease naval stations
• Cuba’s public debt should not exceed its capacity to pay

3. Explain ways in which the President and Congress resolved the annexation difficulties in the Philippines.
 
• US offered Spain $20 million for the Philippine Islands.
• Anti-imperialist feeling in the Senate was so strong that treaty was ratified by a two-vote margin.
• A Senate resolution promising eventual independence to the Filipino people was defeated only by the tie-breaking vote of the Vice President.
4. Describe how problems with Cuba and Puerto Rico were resolved.

 
Cuba:
• Platt Ammendment was created
1. Cuba should not make any treaty with another nation that weakened its independence
2. Cuba should allow the United States the right to buy or lease naval stations
3. Cuba’s public debt should not exceed its capacity to pay
4. The United States should have the right to intervene to protect Cuban independence and keep order
Puerto Rico:
• After some military rule, Congress allowed Puerto Rico some degree of self-government
Sphere of Influence
 
area where a European nation controlled economic development
Boxer Rebellion
 
group intended to wipe out “foreign devils” and their Christian converts
Drago Doctrine
 
to forcibly collect debts from bankrupt countries
Roosevelt Corollar
 
addition to the Monroe Doctrine, whenever an American republic was guilty of “chronic wrongdoing” the US may have to intervene
5. Explain how Roosevelt’s Big Stick diplomacy led to ill feeling against the United States throughout Latin America.
 
• Attempted to advance “the needs of collective civilization” by speeding up the interocean canal and it would be seen as unjustifiable aggression.
• Latin American aroused dislike and distrust of the United States
• Latin America wanted self government
• Countries like Venezuela, Colombia, and Dominican Republic felt violated
• US took land anyways
1. State three reasons why the United States abandoned isolationist policies after the Civil War.
 
• US became involved in stopping the ignoring of the Monroe Doctrine when the French overthrew Mexico
• US was being challenged by Great Britain involving the Venzuelan-Britain border dispute and the $2 billion in damages by Britain
• US needed to be involved in Cuba when Cleveland stated “if useless sacrifice of human life” went on, the United States might have to intervene
2. Explain how confrontation with Great Britain in 1895-1896 led to strengthening the American navy.
 
• Mahan’s writings expressed that a modern nation needed sea power in order to become great
• Writings were read by leaders such as Theodore Roosevelt and it lead to more ships being built such 3 more battleships
3. Describe the position of the President and press regarding war with Spain over Cuba. Why did McKinley change his mind?
 
• The press with Yellow Journalism attempted to encourage war among the people of the US.
• McKinley had a change when Enrique Dupuy de Lome said that he was “weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd”
4. List three reasons America went to war over Cuba. Which was most important?
 
• Cuban people were placed in “reconcentration camps” where many died
• US followed isolationism until Yellow Journalism started to encourage war
• McKinley demanded that Spain give Cuba independence and thus Congress demanded that Spain evacuate the island.
• Spain did not reply
5. Discuss why Hawaii had fewer difficulties accepting its position as a United States possession than did Puerto Rico or the Philippines.
 
• Hawaii was closely connected to the US through commerce and the many Americans living there
• American missionaries and traders ventured to Hawaii in the 1800s.
• Business community was huge.
6. Show why Americans favored an Open Door policy in China.
 
• In order to preserve equal trading opportunities in China for all foreign nations
• Expanded markets in the vast land in China
7. Indicate why the United States needed to build the Panama Canal.
 
• Save time for commercial shipping
• Answer the strategic need to shuttle warships between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans.
• 3 times distance without canal
1. How did the use of the Big Stick in Latin America increase American wealth and political power?
 
• The use of the Big Stick sped up the building of the Panama Canal thus creating a much easier form of transportation of materials for the economy.
• Politically, America gained the canal through a treaty and was seen as a bigger power
2. How did a show of force with Great Britain and Germany enhance the American position in Latin America?
 
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