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An organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain and specified set of phenomena and their interrelationships.
A statement that attempts to predict or to account for a set of phenomena; scientific hypotheses specify relationships among events or variables and are empirically tested.
: A precise definition of a term a hypothesis, which specifies the operations for observing and measuring the process or phenomenon being defi nition. The principle...
The tendency to look for or pay attention only to the information that confirms one’s own belief. A group of subjects, selected from a population study, which matches the population...
Methods that yield descriptions of behavior but not necessarily causal explanations.
A detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated.
A study in which the researcher carefully and systematically observes and records behavior without interfering with the behavior; it may involve either naturalistic or laboratory...
Procedures used to measure and evaluate personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes, interests, abilities, and values.
In test construction, to develop uniform procedures for giving and scoring a test
In test construction, established standards of performance.
In test construction, the consistency of scores derived from a test, from one time and place to another.
The ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure.
Questionnaires and interviews that ask people directly about their experiences, attitudes, or opinions.
A shortcoming of findings derived from a sample of volunteers instead of a representative sample; the volunteers may differ from those who did not volunteer.
A descriptive study that looks for a consistent relationship between two phenomena.
A measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another.
Characteristics of behavior or experience that can be measured or described by numeric scale.
An association between increases in one variable and increases in another or between decreases one and in another.
An association between increases in one variable and decreases in another.
Coefficeint of Correlation
A measure of correlation that ranges in value from -1.00 to +1.00.
A controlled test of a hypothesis in which the researcher manipulates one variable to discover its effect on another.
A variable that an experimenter manipulates.
A variable that an experimenter predicts will be affected by manipulations of the independent variable.
In an experiment, a comparison condition in which subjects are exposed to the same treatment as in the experimental condition.
A procedure for assigning people to experimental and control groups in which each individual has the same probability as any other of being assigned to a given group.
An inactive substance or fake treatment used as a control in an experiment or given by a medical practitioner to a patient.
An experiment in which subjects do not know whether they are in an experimental or a control group.
Unintended changes in subjects behavior due to cues inadvertently give by the experimenter.
An experiment in which neither the subjects nor the individuals running the study know which subjects are in the control group and which are in the experimental group until after...
Descriptive or experimental research conducted in a natural setting outside the laboratory.
Statistical procedures that organize and summarize research data.
An average that is calculated by adding up a set of quantities and dividing the sum by the total number of quantities in the set.
A commonly used measure of variability that indicates the average difference between scores in the distribution and their mean.
Statisical procedures that allow researchers to draw inferences about how statistically meaningful a study’s results are.
Statistical tests that show how likely it is that a study’s results occurred merely by choice.
A study in which subjects of different ages are compared at a given time.
A study in which subjects are followed and periodically reassessed over a period of time.
The amount of variance among the scores in a study accounted for by the independent variables.
The doctrine that human research subjects must participate voluntarily and must know enough about the study to make an intelligent decision about whether to participate.