Chapter 2 Unit One Psychology Flash Cards

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Chapter 2 Unit One Psychology Flash Cards

Flash Cards For Chapter Two Unit One Of Psychology

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Theory
 
An organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain and specified set of phenomena and their interrelationships.
Hypothesis
 
A statement that attempts to predict or to account for a set of phenomena; scientific hypotheses specify relationships among events or variables and are empirically tested.
Operational Definition
 
: A precise definition of a term a hypothesis, which specifies the operations for observing and measuring the process or phenomenon being defi nition. The principle that a scientific theory must make predictions that are specific enough to expose the theory to the possibility of disconfirmation; that is, the theory must predict not only what will happen but also what will not happen.
Confirmation Bias
 
The tendency to look for or pay attention only to the information that confirms one’s own belief. A group of subjects, selected from a population study, which matches the population on important characteristics such as age and sex.
Descriptive Methods
 
Methods that yield descriptions of behavior but not necessarily causal explanations.
Case Study
 
A detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated.
Observational Study
 
A study in which the researcher carefully and systematically observes and records behavior without interfering with the behavior; it may involve either naturalistic or laboratory observation.
Psychological Tests
 
Procedures used to measure and evaluate personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes, interests, abilities, and values.
Standarize
 
In test construction, to develop uniform procedures for giving and scoring a test
Norms
 
In test construction, established standards of performance.
Reliablitiy
 
In test construction, the consistency of scores derived from a test, from one time and place to another.
Validity
 
The ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure.
Surveys
 
Questionnaires and interviews that ask people directly about their experiences, attitudes, or opinions.
Volunteer Bias
 
A shortcoming of findings derived from a sample of volunteers instead of a representative sample; the volunteers may differ from those who did not volunteer.
Correlational Study
 
A descriptive study that looks for a consistent relationship between two phenomena.
Correlation
 
A measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another.
Variables
 
Characteristics of behavior or experience that can be measured or described by numeric scale.
Positive Correlation
 
An association between increases in one variable and increases in another or between decreases one and in another.
Negative Correlation
 
An association between increases in one variable and decreases in another.
Coefficeint of Correlation
 
A measure of correlation that ranges in value from -1.00 to +1.00.
Experiment
 
A controlled test of a hypothesis in which the researcher manipulates one variable to discover its effect on another.
Independent Variable
 
A variable that an experimenter manipulates.
Dependent Variable
 
A variable that an experimenter predicts will be affected by manipulations of the independent variable.
Control Condition
 
In an experiment, a comparison condition in which subjects are exposed to the same treatment as in the experimental condition.
Random Assignment
 
A procedure for assigning people to experimental and control groups in which each individual has the same probability as any other of being assigned to a given group.
Placebo
 
An inactive substance or fake treatment used as a control in an experiment or given by a medical practitioner to a patient.
Single-Blind Study
 
An experiment in which subjects do not know whether they are in an experimental or a control group.
Experimenter Effects
 
Unintended changes in subjects behavior due to cues inadvertently give by the experimenter.
Double-Blind Study
 
An experiment in which neither the subjects nor the individuals running the study know which subjects are in the control group and which are in the experimental group until after the results are tallied.
Field Research
 
Descriptive or experimental research conducted in a natural setting outside the laboratory.
Descriptive Statistics
 
Statistical procedures that organize and summarize research data.
Arithemic Mean
 
An average that is calculated by adding up a set of quantities and dividing the sum by the total number of quantities in the set.
Standard Deviation
 
A commonly used measure of variability that indicates the average difference between scores in the distribution and their mean.
Inferental Statistics
 
Statisical procedures that allow researchers to draw inferences about how statistically meaningful a study’s results are.
Signifigance Tests
 
Statistical tests that show how likely it is that a study’s results occurred merely by choice.
Cross-Sectional Study
 
A study in which subjects of different ages are compared at a given time.
Longitudal Study
 
A study in which subjects are followed and periodically reassessed over a period of time.
Effect Size
 
The amount of variance among the scores in a study accounted for by the independent variables.
Informed Consent
 
The doctrine that human research subjects must participate voluntarily and must know enough about the study to make an intelligent decision about whether to participate.
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