Chapter 2 Unit One Psychology Flash Cards

Flash Cards For Chapter Two Unit One Of Psychology
Created Feb 10, 2010
by aturrietta
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Theory
An organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain and specified...
Hypothesis
A statement that attempts to predict or to account for a set of phenomena; scientific...
Operational Definition
: A precise definition of a term a hypothesis, which specifies the operations for observing...
Confirmation Bias
The tendency to look for or pay attention only to the information that confirms one’s...
Descriptive Methods
Methods that yield descriptions of behavior but not necessarily causal explanations.
Case Study
A detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated.
Observational Study
A study in which the researcher carefully and systematically observes and records behavior...
Psychological Tests
Procedures used to measure and evaluate personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes, interests,...
Standarize
In test construction, to develop uniform procedures for giving and scoring a test
Norms
 In test construction, established standards of performance.
Reliablitiy
In test construction, the consistency of scores derived from a test, from one time and...
Validity
The ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure.
Surveys
Questionnaires and interviews that ask people directly about their experiences, attitudes,...
Volunteer Bias
A shortcoming of findings derived from a sample of volunteers instead of a representative...
Correlational Study
A descriptive study that looks for a consistent relationship between two phenomena.
Correlation
A measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another.
Variables
Characteristics of behavior or experience that can be measured or described by numeric...
Positive Correlation
An association between increases in one variable and increases in another or between...
Negative Correlation
An association between increases in one variable and decreases in another.
Coefficeint of Correlation
A measure of correlation that ranges in value from -1.00 to +1.00.
Experiment
A controlled test of a hypothesis in which the researcher manipulates one variable to...
Independent Variable
A variable that an experimenter manipulates.
Dependent Variable
A variable that an experimenter predicts will be affected by manipulations of the independent...
Control Condition
  In an experiment, a comparison condition in which subjects are exposed to the...
Random Assignment
A procedure for assigning people to experimental and control groups in which each individual...
Placebo
An inactive substance or fake treatment used as a control in an experiment or given by...
Single-Blind Study
An experiment in which subjects do not know whether they are in an experimental or a...
Experimenter Effects
Unintended changes in subjects behavior due to cues inadvertently give by the experimenter.
Double-Blind Study
An experiment in which neither the subjects nor the individuals running the study know...
Field Research
Descriptive or experimental research conducted in a natural setting outside the laboratory.
Descriptive Statistics
Statistical procedures that organize and summarize research data.
Arithemic Mean
An average that is calculated by adding up a set of quantities and dividing the sum by...
Standard Deviation
A commonly used measure of variability that indicates the average difference between...
Inferental Statistics
Statisical procedures that allow researchers to draw inferences about how statistically meaningful...
Signifigance Tests
Statistical tests that show how likely it is that a study’s results occurred merely...
Cross-Sectional Study
A study in which subjects of different ages are compared at a given time.
Longitudal Study
A study in which subjects are followed and periodically reassessed over a period of time.
Effect Size
The amount of variance among the scores in a study accounted for by the independent variables.
Informed Consent
The doctrine that human research subjects must participate voluntarily and must know...


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