Chapter 2: Neuroscience and Behavior

76 cards

Psychology


 
  
Created Jul 14, 2012
by
ahensel16

 

 
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1
a French surgeon and neuroanatomist. He treated a series of patients who had great difficulty...
 
Pierre Paul Broca
2
psychologist and neuroscientist. He and his colleagues began unraveling the puzzle of the left...
 
Roger Sperry
3
a young German neurologist discovered another area in the let hemisphere that, when damaged,...
 
Karl Wernicke
4
specialized branch of psychology that studies the relationship between behavior and bodily...
 
biological psychology
5
the study of the nervous system, especially the brain
 
neuroscience
6
highly specialized cell that communicates information in electrical and chemical form; a nerve...
 
neuron
7
type of neuron that conveys information from the environment and holds it for a very brief...
 
sensory neuron
8
type of neuron that signals muscle to relax or contract
 
motor neuron
9
type of neuron that communicates information from one neuron to the next
 
interneuron
10
support cells that assist neurons by providing structural support, nutrition, and removal of...
 
glial cells
11
processes nutrients and provides energy for the neuron to function; contains the cell's nucleus;...
 
cell body
12
multiple short fivers that extend from the neuron's cell body and receive information from...
 
dendrites
13
the long, fluid-filled tube that carries a neuron's messages to other body areas
 
axon
14
a white, fatty covering wrapped around the axons of some neurons that increases their communication...
 
myelin sheath
15
a brief electrical impulse by which information is  transmitted along the axon of a neuron
 
action potential
16
the minimum level of stimulation required to activate a particular neuron
 
stimulus threshold
17
state in which a neuron is prepared to activate and communicate its message if it receives...
 
resting potential
18
the principal that either a neuron is sufficiently stimulated and an action potential occurs...
 
all-or-none law
19
the point of communication between two neurons
 
synapse
20
the tiny space between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrite of an adjoining neuron
 
synaptic gap
21
branches at the end of the axon that contain tiny pouches, or sacs, called synaptic vesicles
 
axon terminals
22
tiny pouches or sacs in the axon terminals that contain chemicals called neurotransmitters
 
synaptic vesicles
23
chemical messengers manufactured by a neuron
 
neurotransmitters
24
the process through which neurotransmitters are released by one neuron, cross the synaptic...
 
synaptic transmission
25
Neurotransmitter that causes muscle contractions and is involved in learning and memory
 
acetylcholine
26
Neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of bodily movement, thought processes, and rewarding...
 
dopamine
27
neurotransmitter involved in sensory perceptions, sleep, and emotions
 
serotonin
28
neurotransmitter involved in learning, memory, and regulation of sleep; also a hormone manufactured...
 
norepinephrine
29
Neurtransmitter that usually communicates an inhibitory message
 
GABA
30
neurotransmitters that regulate pain perceptions
 
endorphins
31
the primary internal communication network of the body; divided into the central nervous system...
 
nervous system
32
bundles of neuron axons that carry information in the peripheral nervous system
 
nerves
33
division of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord
 
central nervous system
34
simple, automatic behaviors that are processed in the spinal cord
 
spinal reflexes
35
division of the nervous system that includes all the nerves lying outside the central nervous...
 
peripheral nervous system
36
subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that communicates sensory information to the central...
 
somatic nervous system
37
subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that regulates involuntary functions
 
autonomic nervous system
38
branch of the autonomic nervous system that produces rapid physical arousal in response to...
 
sympathetic nervous system
39
branch of the autonomic nervous system that maintains normal bodily functions and conserves...
 
parasympathetic nervous system
40
system of glands located throughout the body that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
 
endocrine system
41
chemical messengers secreted into the bloodstream primarily by endocrine glands
 
hormones
42
endocrine gland attached to the base of the brain that secretes hormones that affect the function...
 
pituitary gland
43
pair of endocrine glands that are involved in the human stress response
 
adrenal glands
44
the outer portion of the adrenal glands
 
adrenal cortex
45
the inner portion of the adrenal glands; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
 
adrenal medulla
46
the endocrine glands that secrete hormones that regulate sexual characteristics and reproductive...
 
gonads
47
the brain's ability to shift functions from damaged to undamaged brain areas
 
functional plasticity
48
the brain's ability to change its physical structure in response to learning, active practice,...
 
structural plasticity
49
the development of new neurons
 
neurogenesis
50
a pseudoscientific theory of the brain that claimed that personality characteristics, moral...
 
phrenology
51
the notion that different functions are located or localized in different areas of the brain
 
cortical localization
52
a region of the brain made up of the hindbrain and the midbrain
 
brainstem
53
a region at the base of the brain that contains several structures that regulate basic life...
 
hindbrain
54
a hindbrain structure that controls vital life functions such as breathing and circulation
 
medulla
55
a hindbrain structure that connects the medulla to the two sides of the cerebellum; helps coordinate...
 
pons
56
a large, two-sided hindbrain structure at the back of the brain; responsible for muscle coordination...
 
cerebellum
57
a network of nerve fibers located in the center of the medulla that helps regulate attention,...
 
reticular formation
58
the middle and smallest brain region, involved in processing auditory and visual sensory information
 
midbrain
59
an area of the midbrain that is involved in motor control and contains a large concentration...
 
substantia nigra
60
the largest and most complex brain region, which contains centers for complex behaviors and...
 
forebrain
61
the wrinkles outer portion of the forebrain, which contains the most sophisticated brain centers
 
cerebral cortex
62
the nearly symmetrical left and right halves of the cerebral cortex
 
cerebral hemispheres
63
a thick band of axons that connects the two cerebral hemispheres and acts as a communication...
 
corpus callosum
64
an are on each hempishere of the cerebral cortex near the temples that is the primary receiving...
 
temporal lobe
65
an area at the back of each cerebral hemisphere that is the primary receiving area for visual...
 
occipital lobe
66
an area on each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex located above the temporal lobe that processes...
 
parietal lobe
67
the largest lobe of each cerebral hemisphere; processes voluntary muscle movements and is involved...
 
frontal lobe
68
a group of forebrain structures that form a border around the brainstem and are involved in...
 
limbic system
69
a curved forebrain structure that is part of the limbic system and is involved in learning...
 
hippocampus
70
a forebrain structure that processes sensory information for all senses,except smell, and relays...
 
thalamus
71
a peanut-sized forebrain structure that is part of the limbic system and regulates behaviors...
 
hypothalamus
72
almond-shaped cluster of neurons in the brain's temporal lobe, involved in memory and emotional...
 
amygdala
73
the notion that different functions are located or localized in different areas of the brain
 
cortical localization
74
the notion that specific psychological or cognitive functions are processed primarily on one...
 
lateralization of function
75
the partial or complete inability to articulate ideas or understand spoken or written language...
 
aphasia
76
a surgical procedure that involves cutting the corpus callosum
 
split-brain operation


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