Chapter 19: The History Of Life On Earth

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Created Nov 21, 2009
by emma.feldman
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continental drift
the movement of continents in geological times; earth's crust and part of its upper mantle...
source of life's raw materials: above, beyond or below hypotheses
methane, hydrogen, and ammonia provided by the atmosphere (above); outer space as the source...
This single molecule performed both the DNA and enzyme roles, enabling the first living things...
RNA
rybozymes
enzymes that are composed of RNA instead of protein; can encode information and act as enzymes;...
Life is said to have begun when
RNA's precursor began to carry out variable self-replication; it is important that these molecules...
The three domains of life are...
Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
The four kingdoms within Eukarya are 
Protista, Plantae, Animalia, and Fungi
Bacteria and archaea are made up strictly of...
single-celled microbes (are microscopic) and lack a nucleus (are prokaryotic)
protists
mostly microscopic and water-dwelling organisms; the term refers to many evolutionary lines
universal ancestor
the organism or group of organisms that gave rise to all current life 
stomatolites
internal patterns found in rock deposits of Western Australia from 3.4 billion years ago that...
Photosynthesis began in bacteria by at least 3.4 billion years ago, making available a massive...
cyanobacteria were the first organisms to produce _______ as a by-product of photosynthesis
oxygen
Organisms that obtain their energy _________ can extract a great deal more energy from a given...
aerobically; oxygen-aided
ancient bacteria that could metabolize oxygen took up residence in early eukaryotic cells and...
mutually beneficial
Malnourished Earth Hypothesis
oxygen that built up in Earth's atmosphere 2.4 billion years ago weathered sulfur off the land...
animals
multi-celled organisms that get their nutrition from other organisms or organic material
Cambrian Explosion
an alleged sudden appearance of the ancestors of modern animals beginning about 542 Mya
phylum
a group of organisms that share the same body plan; there are at least 36 phyla in the animal...
modern animal phyla may have began to appear as much as a billion years ago, but large specimens...
.
Even if the Cambrian Explosion was only an explosion of size, animals developed the capacity...
one  animal's predatory adaptation spurs another's defensive adaptation and vice versa
The first multi-celled life on land were...
plant-fungi combinations (even today about 80%of plants have a symbiotic relationship with...
______ ______ gave rise to all of Earth's plants
green algae
one of plant's responses to the lack of water on land was to evolve a _________
cuticle, a waxy outer covering
one of plant's responses to gravity was to....
stay low, like mosses
plants have adapted to the land by developing a protective housing for embryos, which mature...
within
byrophytes
represented by today's mosses, the most primitive land plants; lack vascular structure
vascular structure
a system of tubes that transports water and nutrients; plants without such a system have limited...
seedless vascular plants
plants that have vascular structures (fluid transport) but don't reproduce using seeds; one...
seeds provide ______ and a ______ ______ _____ for an embryo
food; tough outer coat
gymnosperms
ex: pine and fir treesseeds are visible (pine-cones); represent the final liberation of plants...
angiosperms
flowering plants; evolved b/w 180 and 140 MYa, eventually succeeded gymnosperms as the most...
arthropods
first animals to move to land; their tough external skeleton (exoskeleton) prevents water loss...
the movement of plants onto land made it possible for animals to follow
with plants came food and shelter from the sun's rays
gnathostomes
the family of fishes that are the ancestors of nearly all fish species today; were the first...


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