Chapter 16 Managing Employee Motivation And Performance I And II

Chapter 16 Part 1 And 2
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Set of forces that cuases people to behave in certain ways
Intrinsic- Personal satisfaction of the work itselfExtrinsic- Come from rewards or outcome of job performances
Factors that Determine Individual Performance
Motivation- desireAbility- capabilityWork Environment- resources needed
Traditional Approach to Motivation
Economic gain was primary motivation, employees could be expected to perform any kind of job if they were paid
Human Relations Approach to Motivation
Emphasized role of social processes in workplace. Employees want to feel useful and important
Content Perspectives on Motivation
Approaches to motivation that try to understand what drives or energizes people to put forth effort.
Maslow, Alderfer, Herzberg, McClleland
Maslow's Hierarchy
Succession of Needs:1. Physiological- food, air, sex2. Security- safe from harm3. Belongingness- warm relationships, love4. Esteem- personal pride, positive self-image5. Self-actualization
Weaknesses- five levels not always present. Ordering is not always the same. Cultural differences
Alderfer's ERG Theory
People's needs are grouped into three potentially overlapping categories:1. Existence- Requirements for survival2. Relatedness- Desire for support, relationships, recognition3. Growth- desire for developments, need for self-esteem
Frustration Regression: If higher level needs remain unsatisfied then individual will become frustrated and regress to a lower level and begin to pursue that level again
Herzberg's Two Factor Theory
People's satisfaction are influenced by two independent set of factors:Motivation Factors: Achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement and growth
Hygiene Factors: Supervisors, working conditions, interpersonal relations, pay and security, company policies and administration
Hygiene factors can cause dissatisfaction but do not motivate people. Motivation factors increase job satisfaction
McClelland's Needs Theory
One of three is dominant:1. Need for Achievement- desire to accomplish goals, desire immediate feedback2. Need for Affiliation- desire for acceptance and social approval3. Need for Power- desire to be influential
Low need for affiliation and need for power associated with managerial success
Process Perspectives on Motivation
Approaches to motivation that focus on why people choose certain behavioral options to satisfy their needs and how they evaluate their satisfaction after they have attained these goals
Vroom's expectancy theory, equity theory
Vroom's Expectancy Theory
People produce mental maps of situation before deciding on amount of effort
Three factors:Expectancy: link between effort and performanceInstrumentality: link between performance and outcomesValence- attractiveness of outcome
Motivation = V x I x E
Equity Theory
People develop belief about fairness of outcomes they receive in relation to inputs. People don't expect an equal outcome but rather a fair ratio
Positive and Negative Equity
Positive: in your favorNegative: in someone else's favor
Conditions of and Reactions to Equity Reactions
1. Feeling equitably rewarded- maintain performance
2 Feeling under-rewarded- reduce inequity by trying harder, demand a raise, quit job, distort ratios by altering perception
3. Feeling over-rewarded- increase or decrease inputs, distort ratios by rationalizing, help the object person gain more outcomes
Porter-Lawler Extension of Expectancy Theory
Research shows there is not a clear path from satisfaction to performance
Suggests that if performance results in equitable rewards, people will be more satisfied. So, performance can lead to satisfaction
Goal-Setting Theory
People are motivated when there are concrete objectives or targets
Performance shaped through:Goal Difficulty: best goals are moderately difficultGoal Specificity: should be measurableGoal Acceptance: person accepts goal as his ownGoal Commitment: extent to which a person is interested in reaching the goal
Positive Reinforcement
Actively encourage desired behavior by pairing desired behaviors or outcomes with rewards
Negative Reinforcement (Avoidance)
Passively encourage desired behavior by withholding punishment or something negative
Actively eliminated undesirable behaviors by pairing undesired behaviors with undesirable outcomes
Passively eliminates an undesired behavior by withholding reinforcement
Schedules of Reinforcement
Fixed Interval: reinforcement after a predetermined period of timeVariable Interval: reinforcement after varying periods of time
Fixed Ratio: reinforcement in exchange for a predetermined number of responsesVariable Ratio: reinforcement after an individual has produced a varying number of desired responses
Law of Contingent Reinforcement
In order for a reward to have maximum reinforcing value, it must be delivered only if the desired behavior is exhibited
Law of Immediate Reinforcement
More immediate the delivery of a reward after the occurrence of a behavior, the greater the reinforcing value of the reward
creation of new behaviors by the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of the target behavior

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