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Set of forces that cuases people to behave in certain waysIntrinsic- Personal satisfaction of the work itselfExtrinsic- Come from rewards or outcome of job performances
Factors that Determine Individual Performance
Motivation- desireAbility- capabilityWork Environment- resources needed
Traditional Approach to Motivation
Economic gain was primary motivation, employees could be expected to perform any kind of job if they were paid
Human Relations Approach to Motivation
Emphasized role of social processes in workplace. Employees want to feel useful and important
Content Perspectives on Motivation
Approaches to motivation that try to understand what drives or energizes people to put forth effort.Maslow, Alderfer, Herzberg, McClleland
Succession of Needs:1. Physiological- food, air, sex2. Security- safe from harm3. Belongingness- warm relationships, love4. Esteem- personal pride, positive self-image5. Self-actualizationWeaknesses-...
Alderfer's ERG Theory
People's needs are grouped into three potentially overlapping categories:1. Existence- Requirements for survival2. Relatedness- Desire for support, relationships, recognition3. Growth-...
Herzberg's Two Factor Theory
People's satisfaction are influenced by two independent set of factors:Motivation Factors: Achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement...
McClelland's Needs Theory
One of three is dominant:1. Need for Achievement- desire to accomplish goals, desire immediate feedback2. Need for Affiliation- desire for acceptance and social approval3. Need for...
Process Perspectives on Motivation
Approaches to motivation that focus on why people choose certain behavioral options to satisfy their needs and how they evaluate their satisfaction after they have attained these goalsVroom's...
Vroom's Expectancy Theory
People produce mental maps of situation before deciding on amount of effortThree factors:Expectancy: link between effort and performanceInstrumentality: link between performance and...
People develop belief about fairness of outcomes they receive in relation to inputs. People don't expect an equal outcome but rather a fair ratio
Positive and Negative Equity
Positive: in your favorNegative: in someone else's favor
Conditions of and Reactions to Equity Reactions
1. Feeling equitably rewarded- maintain performance2 Feeling under-rewarded- reduce inequity by trying harder, demand a raise, quit job, distort ratios by altering perception3. Feeling...
Porter-Lawler Extension of Expectancy Theory
Research shows there is not a clear path from satisfaction to performanceSuggests that if performance results in equitable rewards, people will be more satisfied. So, performance can...
People are motivated when there are concrete objectives or targetsPerformance shaped through:Goal Difficulty: best goals are moderately difficultGoal Specificity: should be measurableGoal...
Actively encourage desired behavior by pairing desired behaviors or outcomes with rewards
Negative Reinforcement (Avoidance)
Passively encourage desired behavior by withholding punishment or something negative
Actively eliminated undesirable behaviors by pairing undesired behaviors with undesirable outcomes
Passively eliminates an undesired behavior by withholding reinforcement
Schedules of Reinforcement
Fixed Interval: reinforcement after a predetermined period of timeVariable Interval: reinforcement after varying periods of timeFixed Ratio: reinforcement in exchange for a predetermined...
Law of Contingent Reinforcement
In order for a reward to have maximum reinforcing value, it must be delivered only if the desired behavior is exhibited
Law of Immediate Reinforcement
More immediate the delivery of a reward after the occurrence of a behavior, the greater the reinforcing value of the reward
creation of new behaviors by the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of the target behavior