Unit 4 Identifications: The Scientific Revolution


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God's Handiwork
 
Many Europeans had an interest in the universe merely because it was believed to be this
natural philosophers
 
medieval theologians who preferred logic
alchemy & hermetic magic
 
turning metals and minerals into gold & mysterious magic
Ptolemaic Universe
 
the view of the universe through Ptolemy, thought to be very logical
Aristotle
 
4th century Greek philosopher, contributed to Ptolemaic Universe theory
geocentric universe
 
Ancient intellectul's beliefs that the earth was the center of the universe and that there were even rings surrounding it, and outside the rings were the heavens
Nicolaus Copernicus
 
man who jumpstarted the Scientific Revolution with his new concept of a heliocentric universe
On The Revolution Of The Heavenly Spheres
 
written work by Copernicus published after his death due to heretic content
heliocentric universe
 
sun-centered universe theory proposed by Copernicus
Tycho Brahe
 
made 20 years of observations that backed up Copernicus' heliocentric theory
Johannes Kepler
 
Brahe's assistant, discovered elliptical paths & wrote the Laws Of Planetary Motion
Three Laws Of Planetary Motion
 
written by Kepler to describe the paths of planets and what effects them
Galileo Galilei
 
invented the telescope, discovered inertia, and helped prove the heliocentric theory indirectly (was very Catholic)
Galileo's The Starry Messanger
 
written by Galileo about his discoveries of sunspots, stars, Jupiter's moons, and the surface of the moon with the help of his telescope.
the Inquisition
 
where Galileo was sent to stand before the church after endorsing ideas that went along with the heresy of the heliocentric theory
Issac Newton's Principia
 
written by Issac Newton put together all previous work
Universal Law of Gravitation
 
Newton discoved the properties of gravity and called it the ________
Galen
 
2nd century Greek physician
four bodily humors
 
blood, phlegm, black bile, yellow bile (old doctor belief)
Paracelsus
 
Father of modern medicine, realizes small doses of illness can cure itself
Andreas Vesalius
 
had most accurate understanding of the human body due to his autopsies
Andreas Vesalius' On The Fabric Of The Human Body
 
accounts and observations Andreas Vesalius made during his autopsies
"I Think Therefore I am"
 
said by Rene Descartes, cogito ergo sum
William Harvey
 
identifies importance of heart and circulatory system
William Harvey's On The Motion of The Heart and Blood
 
written by William Harvey when he realized the heart was the #1 organ
Margaret Cavendish
 
wrote numerous scientific works, was an English astronomer
Maria Sibylla Merian
 
she observed insects and plants and the process of metamorphisis, was a great illustrator
Maria Winkelmann
 
female German astronomer, good assistant, wasn't accepted anywhere because she was a woman, brilliant
querelles des femes
 
an ongoing, centuries-long debate about the nature and value of women
empiricism
 
knowledge is derived from experience alone
cartesian dualism
 
seperation of mind and matter
deism
 
beleif that God created the universe but left it alone (Rene Descartes)
Rene Descartes' Discourse On Method
 
written work outlining Descartes' new system of deductive reasoning
Deductive Reasoning Method
 
made by Rene Descartes, it is thinking of something and then making conclusions "I think therefore I am"
Scientific Method
 
formed by Isaac Newton when he put together some of the ideas of both Bacon and Descartes (still in use today)
Inductive Reasoning Method
 
formed by Francis Bacon, an Englishman, went from particular information to the general
Benedict de Spinoza's pantheism
 
believed that God couldn't be seperated from the universe because he was the universe, it wasn't possible
Blaise Pascal's Pensees
 
tried to convert rationalists to Christianity and fought to keep religion and science united
English Royal Society
 
evolved out of informal gatherings of scientists in London & Oxford
French Royal Academy of Sciences
 
society for scientists that received abundant state support, eventually under government control
Journal des Savants
 
French journal that printed results of experiments and other general scientific knowledge
Philosophical Transactions
 
circulated news in England of scientific and academic activities
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