Chapter 13 Political Organization And Social Control

Anthro Chapter 13 Test
 
Created May 2, 2012
by crosie
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Side ASide B
Generalized Levels of Organization
Bands, Tribes, Chiefdoms, States.
Bands
Basic form of social organization. Small, (50-100 people) Kin-based, highly mobile, seasonal...
Tribes
A bunch of bands that are aggregated. NOT what you've seen in the movies. Aggregation of interrelated...
Tribal Infrastructure
Tribes tend to be organized around common resources such as land, water, or game animals. Foraging,...
Simple Chiefdoms
Tend to form when key resources are dominated by one or a few lineages. Leadership is hereditary,...
Factional Competition
The competition between different social and political units that exist within a larger organization,...
Paramount Chiefdom (Kingdom)
Develops when a simple chiefdom gains power over other simple chiefdoms, creating a hierarchy....
Chiefdoms and stability
Chiefdoms are unstable over long periods of time. Clever, energetic chiefs do well, less than...
States
States break political control away from lineages. Power is vested in offices, not in lineages....
New States
Often appear to be extensions of older chiefdom based on politics.
European Union
Essentially parallel to band elders in a tribal form. Leadership by consensus, some notions...
Political Integration
The process that brings disparate people under the control of a single political system.
Pan-tribal mechanisms
Mechanisms such as clans, age, grades and secret societies found in tribal societies that cut...
Clan
Group of kin who consider themselves to be descended from a common ancestor, even though individual...
Specialized Political Roles
Very specific tasks expected of a person or group, such as law enforcement, tax collection,...
Voluntaristic theory of state formation
Theory that stable systems of state govts. arose because people voluntary surrendered some...
Hydraulic Theory of State Formation
The notion that early state systems of govt. arose because small-scale farmers were will to...
Coercive Theory of State Formation
The argument that the state came into existence as a direct result of Warfare (Carneiro)
Nation
A group of people who share a common identity, history and culture.
State
A particular type of political structure that is hierarchical, bureaucratic and cutralized...
Democracy
A type of political system that involves popular participation in decision making.
Autocracy
A form of govt. that's controlled by a leader who holds absolute power and denies popular participation...
Headless Societies
Societies that have no political leaders such as a president king or chiefs.
Social Control
Mechanisms found in all societies that function to encourage people not to violate social norms....
Social Norms
Expected forms of behavior. Aren't adhered perfectly, certain amount of deviance in every society.
Deviance
Violation of a social norm
Sanctions
Any means used to enforce compliance with the rules and norms of society.
Positive Sanctions
Mechanisms of social control for enforcing and society's norms through rewards.
Negative Sanctions
Punishments for violating the norms of society.
Political Coerciveness
Capacity of a political system to enforce its will on general population. (Headless societies)
Socialization
Teaching young people norms of society.
Public Opinion
What the general public thinks about some issue; when public opinion is brought to bear on...
Degradation Ceremonies
Deliberate and formal societal mechanisms designed to publicly humiliate someone who has broken...
Corporate Lineages
Kinship groups whose members engage in daily activities together.
Supernatural Belief System
Set of beliefs in forces that transcend the natural observable world.
Ancestor Worship
Worship of deceased relatives; these souls are considered supernatural beings, and fully functioning...
Ghost Invocation
Practice of a living person, typically an elder, calling for the wrath of ancestor gods against...
Witchcraft
Use of inborn involuntary and unconscious powers to cause harm to other people.
Age Organizations
Type of social organization found in East Africa and among Native Americans groups where in...
Age Set
Group of roughly same age who pass through various age grades together.
Age Grades
Permanent age categories in a  society through which people pass in a life time.
Crime
Harm to a person or property that society considers illegitimate.


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