Chapter 13 - Medical Terminology

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Created May 26, 2009
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britt0359

 

 
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1
endocrine system
 
produces hormones that enter the bloodstream and influence body functions
2
target(s)
 
hormones effect targets that have specific receptors for that hormone
3
hypersecretion
 
overproduction
4
hyposecretion
 
underproduction
5
anqgonistic
 
acting in opposition; mutually opposing
6
electrolytes
 
mineral salts (Na, K, Ca) that carry an electrical charge
7
glucagon
 
hormone produced by pancreatic alpha cells that increase the blood glucose level by stimulating...
8
hormones
 
chemical substances that are released slowly in minute amounts into the blood stream
9
insulin
 
hormone produced by pancreatic beta cells that act to remove glucose from the blood by promoting...
10
sympathomimetic
 
agent that mimics the effects of the sympathetic nervous system
11
target
 
structure, organ, or tissue to which something is directed
12
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
 
(ACTH) targes the adrenal gland and promotes secretions of some hormones
13
Follicle-stimulating Hormone
 
(FSH) targets ovaries to stimulate egg production; targets testes to stimulate sperm production
14
Growth Hormone
 
(GH) targets bone and muscle to stimulate somatic grouth
15
Luteinizing Hormone
 
(LH) targets ocaries and promotes ovulation
16
Prolactin
 
targets breasts to promote lactation
17
Thyroid-stimulating Hormone
 
(TSH) targets thyroid gland and stimulates secretion of thyroid hormone
18
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
 
targets kidey and returns water to blood
19
Oxytocin
 
targets uterus and stimulates contractions (initiates labor)
20
thyroid hormone - calcitonin
 
tones down blood Ca levels, secreted when Ca levels in the blood are high
21
Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3)
 
increases energy production
22
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
 
opposite of calcitonon and increases blood Ca levels; targest bone, kidneys, and small intestine
23
location of adrenal gland
 
sits on top of kidney
24
Glucocorticoids (mainly cortisol)
 
promotes gluconeogenesis; regulate metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats; help depress...
25
Mineralocorticioids (mainly aldosterone)
 
targets kidneys to increase blood levels of Na
26
Epinephrine
 
hormone effects mimic sympathetic nervous system
27
pancreatic hormones - glucagon
 
raises blood glucose level
28
pancreatic hormones - insulin
 
lowers blood glucose level
29
pineal gland
 
in the brain and secretes the hormone melatonin (sleep and mood)
30
adren/o
 
adrenal glands
31
adrenal/o
 
adrenal glands
32
calc/o
 
Ca
33
crin/o
 
secrete
34
gluc/o
 
sugar, sweetness
35
glyc/o
 
sugar, sweetness
36
glycos/o
 
sugar, sweetness
37
home/o
 
same, alike
38
kal/i
 
K
39
pancreat/o
 
pancreas
40
parathyroid/o
 
parathyroid glands
41
thym/o
 
thymus gland
42
thyr/o
 
thyroid gland
43
thyroid/o
 
thyroid gland
44
toxic/o
 
poison
45
-crine
 
secrete
46
-dipsia
 
thirst
47
-gen
 
forming, producing, origin
48
-toxic
 
poison
49
-uria
 
urine
50
eu-
 
good, normal
51
exo-
 
outside, outward
52
hyper-
 
excessive, above normal
53
hypo-
 
under, below
54
poly-man
 
many, much
55
cretinism
 
form of hypothroidism in infants and leads to mental retardation and impaired growth
56
myxedema
 
developing hypothyroidism during adulthood
57
hyperthyroidism
 
excessive secrete of thyroxine hormones
58
graves disease
 
toxic goiter
59
exopthalmos
 
protruding eyes
60
Addison disease
 
deficiency of cortisol
61
cushing syndrome
 
excessive amounts of cortisol, caused by long term steroid use
62
pheochromocytoma
 
tumor that over secretes epinephrine
63
Type I diabetes
 
diagnosed children (juvenile diabetes); body does not produce sufficient insulin
64
Type 2 diabetes
 
most common and body's cells are resistant to insulin action in target tissues
65
gestational diabetes
 
diabetes during pregnancy
66
acromegaly
 
afflicts middle-aged and older persons, caused by overproduction of growth hormone (GH)
67
diuresis
 
increased formation and secretion of urine
68
glucagon
 
increase the blood glucose level
69
glucose
 
blood sugar
70
glycosuria
 
presence of glucose in urine
71
hypercalcemia
 
excessive amounts of Ca in the blood
72
hyperkalemia
 
excessive amounts of K in blood
73
hyponatremia
 
abnormal condition of low sodium in blood
74
insulinoma
 
tumor that oversecretes insulin
75
pheochromocytoma
 
too much adrenaline
76
glucose tolerance test
 
(GTT) measures body's ability to metabolize carbohydrates by administering a standard dose...
77
radioactive iodine uptake
 
administratione of radioactive iodone (RAI)
78
insulins
 
(type 1) lower blood glucose by promoting entrance into body cells and coverting glucose to...
79
oral antidiabetics
 
(type 2) stimulates pancreas to produce more insulin and decrease peripheral resistance to...


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