Chapter 13 - Medical Terminology

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Chapter 13 - Medical Terminology

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endocrine system
 
produces hormones that enter the bloodstream and influence body functions
target(s)
 
hormones effect targets that have specific receptors for that hormone
hypersecretion
 
overproduction
hyposecretion
 
underproduction
anqgonistic
 
acting in opposition; mutually opposing
electrolytes
 
mineral salts (Na, K, Ca) that carry an electrical charge
glucagon
 
hormone produced by pancreatic alpha cells that increase the blood glucose level by stimulating the liver to change stored glycogen to glucose
hormones
 
chemical substances that are released slowly in minute amounts into the blood stream
insulin
 
hormone produced by pancreatic beta cells that act to remove glucose from the blood by promoting its storage in tissues as glycogen
sympathomimetic
 
agent that mimics the effects of the sympathetic nervous system
target
 
structure, organ, or tissue to which something is directed
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
 
(ACTH) targes the adrenal gland and promotes secretions of some hormones
Follicle-stimulating Hormone
 
(FSH) targets ovaries to stimulate egg production; targets testes to stimulate sperm production
Growth Hormone
 
(GH) targets bone and muscle to stimulate somatic grouth
Luteinizing Hormone
 
(LH) targets ocaries and promotes ovulation
Prolactin
 
targets breasts to promote lactation
Thyroid-stimulating Hormone
 
(TSH) targets thyroid gland and stimulates secretion of thyroid hormone
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
 
targets kidey and returns water to blood
Oxytocin
 
targets uterus and stimulates contractions (initiates labor)
thyroid hormone - calcitonin
 
tones down blood Ca levels, secreted when Ca levels in the blood are high
Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3)
 
increases energy production
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
 
opposite of calcitonon and increases blood Ca levels; targest bone, kidneys, and small intestine
location of adrenal gland
 
sits on top of kidney
Glucocorticoids (mainly cortisol)
 
promotes gluconeogenesis; regulate metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats; help depress inflammatory and immune responses
Mineralocorticioids (mainly aldosterone)
 
targets kidneys to increase blood levels of Na
Epinephrine
 
hormone effects mimic sympathetic nervous system
pancreatic hormones - glucagon
 
raises blood glucose level
pancreatic hormones - insulin
 
lowers blood glucose level
pineal gland
 
in the brain and secretes the hormone melatonin (sleep and mood)
adren/o
 
adrenal glands
adrenal/o
 
adrenal glands
calc/o
 
Ca
crin/o
 
secrete
gluc/o
 
sugar, sweetness
glyc/o
 
sugar, sweetness
glycos/o
 
sugar, sweetness
home/o
 
same, alike
kal/i
 
K
pancreat/o
 
pancreas
parathyroid/o
 
parathyroid glands
thym/o
 
thymus gland
thyr/o
 
thyroid gland
thyroid/o
 
thyroid gland
toxic/o
 
poison
-crine
 
secrete
-dipsia
 
thirst
-gen
 
forming, producing, origin
-toxic
 
poison
-uria
 
urine
eu-
 
good, normal
exo-
 
outside, outward
hyper-
 
excessive, above normal
hypo-
 
under, below
poly-man
 
many, much
cretinism
 
form of hypothroidism in infants and leads to mental retardation and impaired growth
myxedema
 
developing hypothyroidism during adulthood
hyperthyroidism
 
excessive secrete of thyroxine hormones
graves disease
 
toxic goiter
exopthalmos
 
protruding eyes
Addison disease
 
deficiency of cortisol
cushing syndrome
 
excessive amounts of cortisol, caused by long term steroid use
pheochromocytoma
 
tumor that over secretes epinephrine
Type I diabetes
 
diagnosed children (juvenile diabetes); body does not produce sufficient insulin
Type 2 diabetes
 
most common and body's cells are resistant to insulin action in target tissues
gestational diabetes
 
diabetes during pregnancy
acromegaly
 
afflicts middle-aged and older persons, caused by overproduction of growth hormone (GH)
diuresis
 
increased formation and secretion of urine
glucagon
 
increase the blood glucose level
glucose
 
blood sugar
glycosuria
 
presence of glucose in urine
hypercalcemia
 
excessive amounts of Ca in the blood
hyperkalemia
 
excessive amounts of K in blood
hyponatremia
 
abnormal condition of low sodium in blood
insulinoma
 
tumor that oversecretes insulin
pheochromocytoma
 
too much adrenaline
glucose tolerance test
 
(GTT) measures body's ability to metabolize carbohydrates by administering a standard dose of glucose
radioactive iodine uptake
 
administratione of radioactive iodone (RAI)
insulins
 
(type 1) lower blood glucose by promoting entrance into body cells and coverting glucose to glycogen
oral antidiabetics
 
(type 2) stimulates pancreas to produce more insulin and decrease peripheral resistance to insulin