Chapter 12 American History Flash Cards

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The Road to War
Chapter 12 Section 1
Causes for WWI
*Countries acting on national interest.
*Different ethnic population.
*Competition for the lands that remained led to conflict among the powers of Europe.
*Japan became more powerful after their war and got more land.
*Europe aggressively built armed forces.
*The Great Powers spent large sums of money on new weapons and warships.
*Germany and Austria-Hungary linked by treaties (later called the Central Powers)
*France, Great Britain, and Russia (later called the Allies)
Mobilization-Readying the troops
*Russia ready's its troops even though Germany tells them not to after Albania assinates the Prime Minister of Austria-Hungary, France gets its troops ready and joins, Germany joins Austria-Hungary and declares war on Russia.
Modern Warfare
*The Defensive front had all new modern weapons These included: modern machine guns and rapid-fire artillery, to stop the soldiers that were advancing.
*The Defense were ripped apart by the German's grenades, machine guns, and poisonous gas during WWI.
Preparedness Movement
*Businesses with ties to Great Britain urged the US to get ready for WWI.
*The leaders of the Preparedness Movement persuaded the government to set up camps to train American men for combat.
The United States Declares War
Chapter 12 Lesson 2
German Warfare
-British Involvement
*Great Britain competed with Germany to build the largest, strongest navy and created a stalemate on the waters.
-Sussex Pledge
*United States made a deal with Germany that the U-boats would warn ships before attacking.
*Enabled Germany to break a stalemate at sea.

Zimmermann Note
*Germany made a deal with Mexico, that if Mexico invaded the United States, Germany would reward Mexico with American land in the Southwest.
Americans on the European Front
Chapter 12 Section 3
Purpose of the Convoy System
*The purpose of the convoy system was to get the American soldiers to Great Britain safely by surrounding a group of unarmed ship filled with soldiers with destroyers, torpedo boats, and other armed naval vessels equipped with hydrophones (device used to track enemy ships) to track and destroy the U-boats.
African Americans in WWI
*African Americans were put in segregated units.
*Most black soldiers never saw combat, though many fought with discrimination and nearly 4,000 died or were injured.
*The marines refused to accept them altogether and the navy only used the African Americans for only easy tasks.
*The army, too, used African Americans for manual labor.
Selective Service Act
*Authorized by Congress to draft young men into WWI.
Vladimir Lenin/Russia
*Vladimir Lenin signed a peace treaty with Germany and it caused the British forces to be attacked by Germany and be separated from France so the German forces can reach Paris and take it over.
Results of the War
*Physical and mental scars, 50,000 American soldiers died in battle, and so many others died from the flu/influenza.
*The Ottoman forces deported and murdered Armenians, who the Ottomans suspected of disloyalty to the government.
Americans on the Home Front
Chapter 12 Section 4
Great Migration
*When 500,000 African Americans moved up to the North from the South for work during WWI.
Liberty Bonds
*Special war bonds that supported the Allied causes in WWI.
War Industries Board
*Headed by Bernard Baruch, oversaw the nation's war-related productions.
Herbert Hoover/Food Administration
*Increased farm output and reduced waste during the war and controlled prices.
Fear of Foreigners
Literacy Tests
*Few immigrants failed the literacy test but still the test had set the stage for a vigorous revival of nativism.
Global Peacemaker
Chapter 12 Section 5
Versailles Treaty
Senators oppose or approved
*The senators opposed the treaty because it would commit the United States to the League of Nations and we would lose our independence.
Postwar Adjustments
*By April 1919, 4,000 service men a day were out of the armed forces but had no clue how to adjust to society.
*Troops were unemployed, women who had taken men's place in work left their jobs or were fired to let the men work again, and African American soldiers who were technically heroes were discriminated when they came back to the United States.
League of Nations
Article 10
*Pledged that members of the League would regard an attack on one country as an attack on them all.
Paris Peace Conference
Fourteen Points
*Wilson made deals that said that there would be Freedom of the seas open public peace treaties, and to lower the trade barriers.
*Wilson wanted the power to make the decisions for the futures of the people in Austria-Hungary.
*Wilson gave into the French insistance that the Germans pay for all the damages during the war.

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