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Chapter 11 - Special Senses: The Eyes And Ears


Chapter 11 - Special
  
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blephar/o
 
eyelid
-cusis
 
hearing
irid/o
 
iris, colored part of eye
kerat/o
 
horny, hard, cornea
myring/o
 
tympanic membrane, eardrum
ophthalm/o
 
eye, vision
-opia
 
vision condition
opt/o
 
eye, vision
ot/o
 
ear, hearing
phak/o
 
lens of eye
presby/o
 
old age
retin/o
 
retina, net
scler/o
 
sclera, white of eye, hard
trop/o
 
turn, change
tympan/o
 
tympanic membrane, eardrum
adnexa
 
appendages or accessory structures of an organ

amblyopia
ambly = dim or dull; -opia = vision condition
 
a dimness of vision or the partial loss of sight, especially in one eye, without detectable disease of the eye

ametropia
ametr = out of proportion; -opia = vision condition
 
any error of refraction in which images do not focus properly on the retina

anisocoria
anis/o = unequal; cor = pupil; -ia = abnormal condition
 
a condition in which the pupils are unequal in size; can be congenital or caused by a head injury, aneurysm, or pathology of central nervous system
astigmatism
 
a condition in which the eye does not focus properly because of uneven curvatures of the cornea

barotrauma
bar/o = pressure; -trauma = injury
 
is pressure-related ear discomfort that can be caused by pressure changes when flying, driving in mountains, scuba diving, or when the eustachian tube is blocked

blepharoptosis (ptosis)
blephar/o = eyelid; -ptosis = drooping or sagging
 
is drooping of the upper eyelid that is usually due to paralysis
cataract
 
the loss of transparency of the lens that causes a progressive loss of visual clarity
chalazion (internal stye)
 
a localized swelling inside the eyelid resulting from obstruction of a sebaceous gland; compare with a hordeolum
cochlear implant
 
is an implanted electronic device that can give a deaf person a useful auditory understanding of the environment and/or hearing and help them to understand speech
conjunctivitis (pinkeye)
 
an inflammation of the conjunctiva that is usually caused by an infection or allergy

dacryoadenitis
dacry/o = tear; aden = gland; -itis = inflammation
 
an inflammation of the lacrimal gland that can be caused by a bacterial, viral, or fungal infection

diplopia (double vision)
dipl = double; opia = vision condition
 
the perception of two images of a single object

ectropion
ec- = out; trop = turn; -ion = condition
 
the eversion of the edge of an eyelid; eversion means turning outward

emmetropia
emmetr = in proper measure; -opia = vision condition
 
the normal relationship between the refractive power of the eye and the shape of the eye that enables light rays to focus correctly on the retina

entropion
en- = in; trop = turn; -ion = condition
 

the inversion of the edge of an eyelid; inversion means turning inward

esotropia (cross-eyes)
eso- = inward; trop = turn; -ia = abnormal condition
 
is strabismus characterized by an inward deviation of one or both eyes; esotropia is the opposite of exotropia
eustachitis (salpingitis)
 
is inflammation of the eustachian tube

exotropia (walleye)
exo- = outward; trop = turn; -ia = abnormal condition
 
is strabismus characterized by the outward deviation of one eye relative to the other; exotropia is the opposite of esotropia
fluorescein angiography
 
a radiographic study of the blood vessels in the retina of the eye following the intravenous injection of a fluorescein dye as a contrast medium
glaucoma
 
a group of diseases characterized by increased intraocular pressure that cause damage to the retinal nerve fibers and the optic nerve

hemianopia
hemi- = half; an- = without; -opia = vision
 
is blindness in one-half of the visual field
hordeolum (stye)
 
a pus-filled lesion on the eyelid resulting from an infection in a sebaceous gland; compare with a chalazion
hyperopia (farsightedness)
 
a defect in which light rays focus beyond the retina; hyperopia is the opposite of myopia
infectious myringitis
 
a contagious inflammation that causes painful blisters on the eardrum; condition is associated with a middle ear infection

iridectomy
irid = iris; -ectomy = surgical removal
 
the surgical removal of a portion of the tissue of the iris
iritis (anterior uveitis)
 
an inflammation of the uveal tract affecting primarily structures in the front of the eye
keratitis
 
an inflammation of the cornea; condition can be due to many causes including bacterial, viral, or fungal infections
labyrinthectomy
 
the surgical removal of all or a portion of the labyrinth; procedure is performed to relieve uncontrolled vertigo
laser trabeculoplasty
 
is used to treat open-angle glaucoma by creating openings in the trabecular meshwork to allow fluid to drain properly
mastoidectomy
 
the surgical removal of mastoid cells; procedure used to treat a mastoiditis that can't be controlled with antibiotics
myopia (nearsightedness)
 
is a defect in which light rays focus in front of the retina; occurs mostly around puberty; myopia is the opposite of hyperopia
myringotomy
 
the surgical incision in the eardrum to create an opening for the placement of tympanostomy tubes
nyctalopia (night blindness)
 
a condition in which an individual with normal daytime vision has difficulty seeing at night
nystagmus
 
is an involuntary, constant, rhythmic movement of the eyeball that can be congenital or caused by a neurological injury or drug use
ophthalmoscopy (funduscopy)
 
the visual examination of the fundus (back part) of the eye with an ophthalmoscope
optometrist
 
holds a Doctor of Optometry degree & specializes in measuring the accuracy of vision to determine whether corrective lenses are needed
otitis media
 
an inflammation of the middle ear
otomycosis (swimmer's ear)
 
a fungal infection of the external auditory canal
otopyorrhea
 
the flow of pus from the ear
otorrhagia
 
is bleeding from the ear
otosclerosis
 
the ankylosis of the bones of the middle ear, resulting in a conductive hearing loss; ankylosis means fused together
papilledema (choked disk)
 
swelling & inflammation of the optic nerve at the point of entrance into the eye through the optic disc
periorbital edema
 
swelling surrounding the eye or eyes
presbycusis
 
a gradual loss of sensorineural hearing that occurs as the body ages
presbyopia
 
the condition of common changes in the eyes that occur with aging
pterygium
 
a benign growth on the cornea that can become large enough to distort vision
radial keratotomy
 
a surgical procedure to treat myopia
retinopexy
 
is used to reattach the detached area in a retinal detachment
scleritis
 
an inflammation of the sclera; condition usually associated with infections, chemical injuries, or autoimmune diseases
stapedectomy
 
the surgical removal of the top portion of the stapes bone & insertion of a small prosthetic device known as a piston that conducts sound vibrations to the inner ear
strabismus
 
a disorder in which the eyes point in different directions or are not aligned correctly because the eye muscles are unable to focus together
tarsorrhaphy
 
the partial or complete suturing together of the upper and lower eyelids
tinnitus
 
a ringing, buzzing, or roaring sound in one or both ears; often associated w/ hearing loss & likely to occur w/ prolonged exposure to loud noises
tonometry
 
the measurement of intraocular pressure; abnormally high pressure can be an indication of glaucoma
tympanometry
 
the use of air pressure in the ear canal to test for disorders of the middle ear
tympanostomy tubes (pediatric ear tubes)
 
tiny ventilating tubes placed through the eardrum to provide ongoing drainage for fluids & to relieve pressure that can build up after childhood ear infections
vertigo
 
a sense of whirling, dizziness, & the loss of balance, that is often combined w/ nausea & vomiting
vitrectomy
 
the removal of the vitreous fluid and its replacement with a clear solution
xerophthalmia (dry eye)
 
is drying of eye surfaces including the conjunctiva

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