Chapter 11 Medical Terminology

Chapter 11 Medical Terminology Medical Term. Sentence.
  
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urinary system
 
regulates composition of the extracellular fluids by removing their harmful substances from the blood
erythropoietin
 
secreted by the kidneys and acts on bone marrow to stimulate production of RBCs
nephrons
 
filtering units of the kidney
renal artery
 
carries blood that contains waste products to nephrons for filtering, after waste is removed blood leaves the kidney through the renal vein 
renal pelvis
 
cavity where ureter merges with the kidney for urine passage
ureter
 
slender tube that carries urine to the bladder
urinary bladder
 
acts as a temporary reservior for urine
urethra
 
tube that discharges urine from the bladder
nephron
 
clears and filters blood, there are approx. 1 million nephrons in the kidney
testosterone
 
male hormone that is essential in the development of sperm and secondary sex characteristics
testes
 
located in the scrotum and contains seminiferous tubules that produce sperm
seminiferous tubules
 
produce sperm
vas deferens
 
formed by the epididymis to transport sperm
seminal vesicle
 
contains nutrients that support sperm viability
Three functions of a nephron
 
1. Filtration2. Reabsorption3. Secretion
prostate gland
 
secretes a thin, alkaline substance
cyst/o
 
bladder
vesic/o
 
bladder
glomerul/o
 
golmerulus
lith/o
 
stone, calculus
meat/o
 
opening
nephr/o
 
kidney
ren/o
 
kidney
pyle/o
 
renal pelvis
ur/o
 
urine, urinary tract
ureter/o
 
ureter
urethr/o
 
urethra
andr/o
 
male
balan/o
 
glans penis
epididym/o
 
epididymis
orch/o
 
testical
orchi/o
 
testical
orchid/o
 
testical
test/o
 
testical
perine/o
 
perineum
prostat/o
 
prostate gland
spermat/o
 
sperm cells
sperm/o
 
sperm cells
varic/o
 
dilated vein
vas/o 
 
vessel, vas deferens, duct
vesicul/o
 
seminal vesicle
albumin/o
 
albumin, protein
azot/o
 
nitrogenous compounds
bacteri/o
 
bacteria
crypt/o
 
hidden
gonad/o
 
gonads, sex glands
kal/i
 
potassium
keton/o
 
ketone bodies
noct/o
 
night
oilg/o
 
scanty (decreased production)
py/o
 
pus
-cide
 
killing
-genesis
 
forming, producing, origin
-iasis
 
abnormal condition
-ism
 
condition
-spadias
 
slit, fissure
-uria
 
urine
dia-
 
through, across
retro-
 
backward, behind
urologist
 
doctor who specializes in treatment of genitourinary disorders
pyelonephritis
 
most common form of kidney disease known as kidney infection
nephrolithiasis
 
kidney stone
benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
 
associated with the aging process
cryptochidism
 
failure of testes to descend into the scrotum prior to birth
anuria
 
absence of urine production or output
azotemia
 
retention of excessive amounts of nitrogenous compounds in the blood (also called uremia)
chronic renal failure
 
occurs over a period of years, in which the kidneys lose their ability to work
dysuria
 
painful or difficult urination
enuresis
 
involuntary discharge of urine (incontinence)
hydronephrosis
 
water in kidney
urgency
 
feeling of the need to urinate (UTI)
anorchidism
 
congenital absence of one or both testes (anorchia or anorchism)
erectile dysfunction (ED)
 
inability to initiate or maintain an erection
hypospadias
 
urethra opens on the underside of the penis
sterility
 
inability to produce offspring
digital rectal examination (DRE)
 
assess rectal wall surface for lesions or abnormally firm areas that might indicate cancer
cystoscopy (cysto)
 
endoscopy of bladder for evidence of pathology, obtaining biopsies of tumors or other growths, and removal of polyps
prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
 
blood test used to detect prostatic disorders, especially prostatic cancer
urinalysis
 
test performed on a urine specimen, including physical observation, chemical tests and microscopic evaluation
dialysis
 
medical procedure used to filter toxic substances from bloodstream
circumcision
 
removal of all or part of the foreskin
vasectomy
 
excision of all or a segment of the vas deferens
antibiotics
 
treat bacterial infections of the urinary tract by acting on the bacterial membrane or one of its metabolic processes
diuretics
 
promote and increase urine excretion

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