Chapter 11 - Cardiovascular System - Vocabulary

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Chapter 11 - Cardiovascular System - Vocabulary

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aorta
 
largest artery in the body
arteriole
 
small artery
artery
 
largest type of bloodvessel; carries blood away from the heart to all parts of the body. Notice that artery and away begin with "a"
atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His)
 
specialized muscle fibers connecting the atria with the ventricles and transmitting electrical impulses between them. His is pronounced "hiss"
atrioventricular node (AV node)
 
specialized tissue in the wall between the atria. Electrical impulses pass from the pacemaker (SA node) through the AV node and the atrioventriular bundle or bundle of His toward the ventricles.
atrium (plural: atria)
 
one of two upper chambers of the heart
capillary
 
smallest blood vessel. Materials pass to and from the bloodstream through the thin capillary walls.
carbon dioxide (CO2)
 
Gas (waste) released by body cells, transported via veins to the heart and then to the lungs for exhalation
coronary arteries
 
blood vessels that branch from the aorta and carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle
deoxygenated blood
 
blood that is oxygen-poor
diastole
 
relaxation phase of the heartbeat
electrocardiogram
 
record of the electricity flowing through the hear. The electricity is represented by waves or deflections called P, QRS, or T
endocardium
 
inner lining of the heart
endothelium
 
innermost lining of blood vessels
mitral valve
 
valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle; bicuspid valve
murmur
 
abnormal swishing sound caused by improper closure of the heart valves
myocardium
 
muscular, middle layer of the heart
normal sinus rhythm
 
heart rhythm originating in the sinoatrial node with a resting rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute
oxygen
 
gas that enters the blood through the lungs and travels to the heart to be pumped via arteries to all body cells
pacemaker (sinoatrial node)
 
specialized nervous tissue in the right atrium that begins the heartbeat. An artificial cardiac pacemaker is an electronic apparatus implanted in the chest to stimulate heart muscle that is weak and not functioning
pericardium
 
double-layered membrane surrounding the heart
pulmonary artery
 
artery carrying oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs
pulmonary circulation
 
flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart
pulmonary valve
 
valve positioned between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
pulmonary vein
 
one of two pairs of vessels carrying oxyenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
pulse
 
beat of the heart as felt through the walls of the arteries
septum (plural: septa)
 
partition or wall dividing a cavity; such as between the right and left atria (interatrial spetum) and right and left ventricles (interventricular septum)
sinoatrial node (SA node)
 
pacemaker of the heart
sphygmomanometer
 
instrument to measure blood pressure
systemic circulation
 
flow of blood from body tissue to the heart and then from the heart bak to body tissues
systole
 
contraction phase of the heartbeat.
tricuspid valve
 
located between the right atrium and the right ventricle; it has three (tri-) leaflets, or cusps
valve
 
structure in veins or in the heart that temporarily closes an opening so that blood flows in only one direction
vein
 
thin walled vessel that carries blood from body tissues and lungs back to the heart. Veins contain valves to prevent backflow of blood
vena cava (plural: venae cavae)
 
largest vein in the body. The superior and inferior venae cavae return blood to the right atrium of the heart
ventricle
 
one of two lower chambers of the heart
venule
 
small vein
acute coronary syndromes (ACSs)
 
unstable angina and myocardial infarction (heart attack), which are consequences of plaque rupture in coranary arteries
angina (pectoris)
 
chest pain resulting from myocardial ischemia. Stable angina occurs predictably with exertion; unstable angina is chest pain that occurs more often and wth less exertion
angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor
 
antihypertensive drug that blocks the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, causing blood vessels to dilate. It prevents heart attacks, CHF, stroke and death.
auscultation
 
listening for sounds in blood vessels or other body structures, typically using a stethoscope
beta-blocker
 
drug used to treat angina, hypertension, and srrhymias. It blocks the action of epinephrine (adrenaline) at receptor sites on cells, slowing the heartbeat and reducing the workload on the heart
biventricular pacemaker
 
device enabling ventricles to beat together (in synchrony) so that more blood is pumped out of the heart
bruit
 
abnormal blowing or swishing sound heard during ausultation of an artery or orga
calcium channel blocker
 
drug used to treat angina and hypertension. It dilates blood vessels by blockibg the influx of calcium into muscle cells lining vessels
cardiac arrrest
 
sudden, unexpected stoppage of heart action; sudden cardiac death
cardiac tamponade
 
pressure on the heart caused by fluid in the pericardial space
claudication
 
pain, tension, and weakness in a leg after walking has begun, but absence of pain at rest
digoxin
 
drug that treats arrhythmias and strenghtens the heartbeat
embolus (plural: emboli)
 
clot or other substance that travels to a distant location and suddenly blocks a blood vessel
infarction
 
area of dead tissue
nitrates
 
drugs used in the treatment of angina. They dilate blood vessels, increasing blood flow and oxygen to myocardial tissue
nitroglycerin
 
nitrate drug used in the treatment of angina
occclusion
 
closure of a blood vessel due to blockage
palpitations
 
uncomfortable sensations in the chest related to cardiac arrhythmias, sucha s premature ventricular contractions (PVCs)
patent
 
open
pericardial friction rub
 
scraping or grating noise heard on auscultation of the heart; suggestive of pericarditis
petechiae
 
small, pinpoint hemorrhages
statins
 
drugs used to lower cholesterol in the bloodstream
thrill
 
vibration felt over an area of turmoil in blood flow (as a blocked artery)
vegetations
 
clumps of platelets, clotting proteins, microorganisms, and red blood cells on diseased heart valves