Chapter 11 - Cardiovascular System - Vocabulary

Chapter 11 - Cardiovascular System - Vocabulary
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largest artery in the body
small artery
largest type of bloodvessel; carries blood away from the heart to all parts of the body. Notice that artery and away begin with "a"
atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His)
specialized muscle fibers connecting the atria with the ventricles and transmitting electrical impulses between them. His is pronounced "hiss"
atrioventricular node (AV node)
specialized tissue in the wall between the atria. Electrical impulses pass from the pacemaker (SA node) through the AV node and the atrioventriular bundle or bundle of His toward the ventricles.
atrium (plural: atria)
one of two upper chambers of the heart
smallest blood vessel. Materials pass to and from the bloodstream through the thin capillary walls.
carbon dioxide (CO2)
Gas (waste) released by body cells, transported via veins to the heart and then to the lungs for exhalation
coronary arteries
blood vessels that branch from the aorta and carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle
deoxygenated blood
blood that is oxygen-poor
relaxation phase of the heartbeat
record of the electricity flowing through the hear. The electricity is represented by waves or deflections called P, QRS, or T
inner lining of the heart
innermost lining of blood vessels
mitral valve
valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle; bicuspid valve
abnormal swishing sound caused by improper closure of the heart valves
muscular, middle layer of the heart
normal sinus rhythm
heart rhythm originating in the sinoatrial node with a resting rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute
gas that enters the blood through the lungs and travels to the heart to be pumped via arteries to all body cells
pacemaker (sinoatrial node)
specialized nervous tissue in the right atrium that begins the heartbeat. An artificial cardiac pacemaker is an electronic apparatus implanted in the chest to stimulate heart muscle that is weak and not functioning
double-layered membrane surrounding the heart
pulmonary artery
artery carrying oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs
pulmonary circulation
flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart
pulmonary valve
valve positioned between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
pulmonary vein
one of two pairs of vessels carrying oxyenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
beat of the heart as felt through the walls of the arteries
septum (plural: septa)
partition or wall dividing a cavity; such as between the right and left atria (interatrial spetum) and right and left ventricles (interventricular septum)
sinoatrial node (SA node)
pacemaker of the heart
instrument to measure blood pressure
systemic circulation
flow of blood from body tissue to the heart and then from the heart bak to body tissues
contraction phase of the heartbeat.
tricuspid valve
located between the right atrium and the right ventricle; it has three (tri-) leaflets, or cusps
structure in veins or in the heart that temporarily closes an opening so that blood flows in only one direction
thin walled vessel that carries blood from body tissues and lungs back to the heart. Veins contain valves to prevent backflow of blood
vena cava (plural: venae cavae)
largest vein in the body. The superior and inferior venae cavae return blood to the right atrium of the heart
one of two lower chambers of the heart
small vein
acute coronary syndromes (ACSs)
unstable angina and myocardial infarction (heart attack), which are consequences of plaque rupture in coranary arteries
angina (pectoris)
chest pain resulting from myocardial ischemia. Stable angina occurs predictably with exertion; unstable angina is chest pain that occurs more often and wth less exertion
angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor
antihypertensive drug that blocks the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, causing blood vessels to dilate. It prevents heart attacks, CHF, stroke and death.
listening for sounds in blood vessels or other body structures, typically using a stethoscope
drug used to treat angina, hypertension, and srrhymias. It blocks the action of epinephrine (adrenaline) at receptor sites on cells, slowing the heartbeat and reducing the workload on the heart
biventricular pacemaker
device enabling ventricles to beat together (in synchrony) so that more blood is pumped out of the heart
abnormal blowing or swishing sound heard during ausultation of an artery or orga
calcium channel blocker
drug used to treat angina and hypertension. It dilates blood vessels by blockibg the influx of calcium into muscle cells lining vessels
cardiac arrrest
sudden, unexpected stoppage of heart action; sudden cardiac death
cardiac tamponade
pressure on the heart caused by fluid in the pericardial space
pain, tension, and weakness in a leg after walking has begun, but absence of pain at rest
drug that treats arrhythmias and strenghtens the heartbeat
embolus (plural: emboli)
clot or other substance that travels to a distant location and suddenly blocks a blood vessel
area of dead tissue
drugs used in the treatment of angina. They dilate blood vessels, increasing blood flow and oxygen to myocardial tissue
nitrate drug used in the treatment of angina
closure of a blood vessel due to blockage
uncomfortable sensations in the chest related to cardiac arrhythmias, sucha s premature ventricular contractions (PVCs)
pericardial friction rub
scraping or grating noise heard on auscultation of the heart; suggestive of pericarditis
small, pinpoint hemorrhages
drugs used to lower cholesterol in the bloodstream
vibration felt over an area of turmoil in blood flow (as a blocked artery)
clumps of platelets, clotting proteins, microorganisms, and red blood cells on diseased heart valves
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