Chapter 10 Vocab_Part 1

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Neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells
Afferent Nerves
Carry messages toward the brain and spinal cord (sensory nerves)
Arachnoid Membrane
Middle layer of the three membranes (meninges) that surround the brain and spinal cord
A type of glial cell that transports water and salts from capillaries
Autonomic Nervous System
Nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs
Microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell
Blood-brain barrier
Blood vessels (cappilaries) that selectively let certain substances enter the brain tissue and keep other substances out.
Lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord. The pons and the medulla oblongota are part of the brain stem
cauda equina
Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord
cell body
Part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus
Central nervous System
Brain and Spinal Cord
Posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movement and maintains balance
Cerebral Cortex
Outer region of the cerebrum; containing sheets of nerve cells, gray matter of the brain.
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Fluid that circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord
Largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought, and memory.
Cranial Nerves
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain.
Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to recieve the nervous impulse
Dura Mater
Thick, outermost layer of the mininges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord
Efferent Nerves
Carry messages away from the brain and spinal cord; motor nerves
Ependymal cell
A glial cell that lines membranes within the brain and spinal cord; motor nerves
Ganglion (plural: Ganglia)
Collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system
Glial Cell (Neuroglial Cell)
Cell in the nervous system that is supportive and connective in function. Examples are astrocytes, microglial cells, ependymal cells, and oligodendrocytes.
Gyrus (Plural: Gyri)
Sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded fold on the surface of the cerebellum; convolution.
Portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland.
Medulla Oblongata
Part of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and the size of the blood vessels; nerve fibers cross over here.

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