Chapter 10 - muscle tissue

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Created Mar 6, 2010
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1
Skeletal muscles are organs composed of
 
Skeletal muscle tissue, connective tissue, nerves and blood vessels.
2
Skeletal muscle 6 functions
 

1. Produce skeletal movement - pull on tendons.

2. Maintain posture and body posture.

3....

3
Three  layers of connective tissue that are part of each muscle:
 

1. Epimysium - surrounds the entire muscle

2. Perimysium - divides the muscle into...

4
Epimysium
 
Surrounds the entire muscle. Separates the muscle from surrounding tissues and organs.
5
Perimysium
 
Divide the skeletal muscle into a series of compartments called fascicle. Contains blood vessels...
6
Endomysium
 
Within fascicle, surrounds the individual skeletal muscle cells, or muscle fibers. Contains...
7
Myosatellite cells
 
Embryonic stem cells that function in the repair of damaged muscle tissue
8
Tendon
 
Bundle of collagen fibers from epimysium, perimysium and endomysium at each end of the...
9
Characteristics of skeletal muscle fiber.
 
Enormous, multinucleate,
10
Sarcolemma, what does it surround?
 
Plasma membrane of a muscle fiber. It surrounds the sarcoplasm.
11
Through what is signal to contract?
 
Through Transvers tubules.
12
Myofibril
 
Responsible for skletal muscle fiber contraction. Consist of bundles of protein filaments called...
13
The sarcoplasmic reticulum
 
Related to smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Forms a tubulat network around each individual myofibril....
14
Triad
 
Pair of terminal cisternae an transverse tubule.
15
What causes muscle contration to begin?
 
When stored calcium ions are released into the sarcoplasm. These ions then diffuse into sarcomeres.
16
Sarcomere
 

The smallers functional units of the muscle. Contains: thick and thin filaments, proteins...

17
The A band
 
Located in the center of the sarcomere and contain thick and thin filaments, M-line, H-band...
18
The M line
 
Central portion of the sarcomere. Help stabilize the positions of the thick filaments.
19
H band
 
Contains only thick filaments. Is bigger at reast and gets shorter when contracted.
20
Zone of overlap
 
Thin filaments are in between the thick elements. Each thin filaments is surrounded by 3...
21
The I band
 
Contains thin filaments and no thick filaments.
22
The Z line
 

Consist of proteins called actinins, which interconnect thin filaments. Mark the boundaries...

23
Titin
 
Helps keep the thick and thin filaments in proper alignment and aids in restoring resting sarcomere...
24
Thin filaments contains
 

Actin, trompomyosin (blocks the myosin binding site - prevents cross bridge cycling until...

25
Thick filaments
 

Made of myosin molecules. Has a core of titin. Does the pulling. Has binding sites for actin...

26
Cross-bridge
 
The globular head of the myosin protein that composes the thick filament. Has the ability to...
27
What happens when a skeletal muscle fiber contracts? 4
 

1. The H bands and I bands get smaller

2. The zones of overlap get larger

3....

28
Sliding filament theory
 
The thin filaments are slighting toward the center of each sarcomere, alongside the thick filaments....
29
Where does the communication between the nervous system and skeletal muscle occur?
 
At neuromuscular junction (NMJ)
30
Twitch
 

A single contraction produced by single stimulation.

1. the latent period - begins...

31
Treppe
 
Skeletal muscle is stimulates a second time immediately after the relaxiation phase has ended,...
32
Summation of twitches.
 
Second stimulus arrives before the relaxiation phase has ended and the second contraction is...
33
Incomplete tetanus
 
Stimulus continues and the muscle is never allowed to relax.
34
Complete tetanus
 
Higher stimulation frequency eliminates the relaxiation phase. Action potentials arrive so...
35
Motor unit
 

Size of motor unit is an indication of how fine the control of movement is. The fewer the...

36
Muscle Contraction
 

1) ACh released, binding to receptors

37
What is motor end plate?
 
Place where tips of a motor neuron axon contact a muscle cell to stimulate muscle contraction....
38
What  is Rogor mortis and what causes it?
 
A fixed muscular contraction after death. When calcium builds up in the cytoplasm because it...
39
What are the 2 types of muscle contractions?
 
Isotonic ( concentric and eccentric) and isometric
40
What is a Isotonic contraction?
 

Tension rises and the skeletal muscles's lenth changes. muscle...

41
Isometric contraction?
 
The muscle does not change length and the tension produced never exceeds the load.
42
How do cells generate ATP? 2 ways
 

1. Through aerobic metabolism in mitochondria

2. Glycolysis in the cytoplasm

43
What is muscle fatigue?
 
When muscles can no longer perform a required activity
44
What are the 3 characteristics of muscle fatigue?
 
Exhaustion of metabolic reserves,
High acidity from presence of lactic acid, and
Damage...
45
What are the 3 types of Skeletal muscle fibers?
 
Fast, Slow, and Intermediate Fibers
46
What is Muscle Hypertrophy
 
growth from heavy training, increased diameter of muscle fibers, increased number of myofibrils,
increased...
47
What is Muscle Atrophy?
 
muscle shrinkage due to lack of activity
48
What does aerobic endurance involve?
 
Prolonged, aerobic activities (e.g., aerobic exercise), slow twitch fibers
49
Acetylcholine (Ach)
 
Made by nerve cell at motor endplate

changes permeability of sarcolemma and triggers the...

50
Acetylcholinesterase (Ach-ase)
 
Breaks down Ach

found in synaptic cleft and ssarcolemma

51
Aerobic Respiration
 
takes place in mitochondria

glucose + O2 yields CO2 +H2O...

52
Anaerobic respiration
 
Glucose (no oxygen)yields CO2 +lactic acid

incomplete breakdown of glucose,...

53
Fatigue
 
When muscles run out of oxygen

rising lactic levels lower tissue pH levels then muscles...

54
Lactic acid
 

by-product of anaerobic respiration, build up lowers pH and interferes with contraction...

55
What causes the myocin head to release from actin?
 
ATP binding to myocin
56
Muscle tone
 
Resting tension in a skeletal muscle.
57
Glycolysis
 
Breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid in the cytoplasm, provides 2 ATP molecules and generates...
58
When becomes glycolysis important?
 

It provides substrates for aerobic metabolism.

Whenenergy demands are at a maximum...

59
Fast fibers - white muscle fiber, fast-twitch, type II fibers
 
Large glycogen reserves, few mitochondria. Produce powerful contractions, fatigue rapidly....
60
Slow fibers - red muscle fibers, slow-twitch, type I fibers.
 
Surrounded by extensive network of capillaries, higher supply to support mitochondrial activity....
61
Intermediate fibers - Type II A fibers
 
Between fast and slow fibers, in appearance, resemble more fast fibers.
62
Aerobic endurance
 
Lenght of time a muscle can continue to contract while supported by mitochondrial activity....
63
Anaerobic endurance
 
Length of time muscular contraction can continue to be supported by glycolysis ad by the existing...
64
Cardiac muscle
 

Only found in heart. Cells contain organized myofibrils, striated appearance, single, centrally...

65
Intercalated discs
 
The plasma membranes of two adjacent cardiac muscle cells are extensively intertwined and bound...
66
Smooth muscle
 
Forms sheets, bundles or sheaths around almost every organ. Has single, centrally located nucleus....
67
The membranous network that surrounds each myofibril is the
 
Sarcoplasmic reticulum.
68
The binding of calcium ions causes ACh to be released from what structure?
 
Synaptic terminal
69
For tropomyosin to be shifted off its position covering the active sites of G actin molecules,...
 
Troponin
70
The binding of ACh to the motor end plate causes a change in membrane permeability to
 
Sodium.
71
What  event in a muscle contraction marks the beginning of the relaxation of the muscle...
 
Detachment of crossbridges
72
Sequence of events in a contraction cycle?
 
Active-site exposure, crossbridge attachment, pivoting, crossbridge detachment, myosin reactivation...
73
A feature found in cardiac muscle cells that is lacking in skeletal and smooth muscle cells...
 
Intercalated discs.
74
In which part of the sarcomere are myosin heads able to form crossbridges with actin?
 
Zones of overlap
75
At rest, active sites on the actin are bloced by
 
tropomyosin molecules
76
Inreractions between actin and myosin filaments of the sacromere are
 
Responsible for muscle contraction.
77
Aponeurosis
 
A broad tendinous sheet that ma serve as the origin or isertion of a skeletal muscle
78
What are the three types of muscle? Which are striated?
 
1. skeletal, cardiac, smooth
2. skeletal and cardiac
79
Sliding Filament Theory
 
Amount of tension is proportionate to the overlap lenght of the thick and thin filaments

-...

80
Ca regulation of contraction:

1. which muscles are controlled by thin filament regulation?

2....

 

1. cardiac and skeletal (striated)

2. smooth

81
 Describe muscle regeneration of:

1. skeletal

2. cardiac

3. smooth

 
 1. regeneration is possible: satellite cells become myoblasts which become myotubes which...
82
 What is plasticity?

Atrophy is caused by?

hypertrophy is caused by?

what...

 
plasticity - muscle adaptation

atrophy - disuse such as bed rest, immobilization, denervation

hypertrophy...

83
Primary function of ATP
 
Trnsfer of energy from one location to another rather than long-term storage of energy.
84
Why would ATP transfer its energy to creatine?
 

ATP can't be stored but at rest, a skeletal muscle fiber produces more ATP than it needs....

85
Creatine
 
Small molecule that muscle cells assemble from fragments of amino acids.
86
What happens if after heavy exercise, energy reserves in a muscle are depleted?
 
An oxygen dept occurs.
87
What happens during anaerobic glycolysis?
 
ATP is produces, oxygen is not consumed and pyruvic acid is produced.
88
In response to action potentials arriving along the transverse tubules, the sarcoplasmic reiculum...
 
Calcium ions.
89
Creatine phosphate?
 
Acts as an energy reserve in muscle tissue.
90
Where is each skeletal muscle fiber controlled by a motor neuron?
 
At a single neuromuscular junction.
91
What is the function of T-tubules?
 
Extension of the sarcolemma, provides a pathway for the conduction of electrical signals deep...
92
What is the terminal cisternae?
 

Part of the SR which store and release calcium

93
What happens when calcium ion binds to troponin?
 
Tropomyosi moves into the groove between the helical actin strands.
94
When do active sites on the actin become available for binding?
 
After calcium binds to troponin.
95
Connective tissue
 
Tissues of the body characterized by widel spaced cells with large amounts of intracellular...
96
Organizational levels of skeletal muscle - biggest to smallest
 

Whole muscl is surrounded by epimysium (connective tissue).

Fascicl is surrounded...

97
The neuromusclular junction
 
The place where a motor neuron stimulates a muscle cell. Skeletal muscle cells contract as...
98
Dense body
 
Structures distributed throughout the sarcoplasm in a network of intermediate filaments composed...
99
What happens when action potential arrives at the axon terminal?
 
When the action potential arrives at the axon terminal, the voltage change of the membrane...
100
What structure contains ACh - acetylcholine?
 
Synaptic vesicles in the synaptic terminal.
101
Sequence of events at the neuromusclar junction.
 

1. Action potential arrives at axon terminal.

2. Calcium ions enter axon terminal.

3....

102
Six steps of cross bridge cycling
 

1. The influx of calcium, triggering the exposure of binding sites on actin.

2....

103
Hydrolysis
 
A chemical process in which an enzyme uses water to split one molecul into smaller parts.
104
Sarcomere
 
pic
105
Thick and thin filaments - picture
 
pic
106
Thick and thin filaments - picture
 
pic

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