Chapter 10 Medical Terminology

110 cards

musculoskeletal. anatomy.


 
  
Created May 20, 2009
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britt0359

 

 
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1
skeletal muscles
 
action is under voluntary control
2
cardiac muscle
 
found only in the heart
3
smooth muscle
 
found everywhere and its actions are involuntary
4
tendon
 
connective tissue fibers that for a cord or strap and attaches muscle to bone
5
ligaments
 
flexible bands of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone
6
hematopoiesis
 
produce blood cells within bone marrow
7
short bones
 
include bones of the ankles, wrist and toes
8
irregular bones
 
make vertebra
9
flat bones
 
skull
10
long bones
 
found in appendages such as legs and arms
11
diaphysis 
 
the shaft or long portion of a bone
12
compact bone
 
forms a cylinder and surrounds a central canal
13
medullary cavity
 
central canal meeting a compact bone and contains yellow bone marrow
14
distal epiphysis & proximal epiphysis
 
are the two ends of a bone
15
articular cartilage
 
covers epiphyses and provides a smooth surface for joint movement
16
spongy bone
 
make up the epiphyses and encase red bone marrow
17
osteoblasts
 
bone-forming cells
18
osteoclast
 
bone destroying cells
19
diaphysis
 
bone shaft that contains compact bone
20
divisions of the skeletal system
 
contains 206 bones
21
cranium
 
protects the brain
22
fontanel
 
the soft spot on an infant
23
mandible
 
lower jaw bone
24
maxillae
 
paired upper jawbones
25
hard palate
 
roof of the mouth
26
cleft palate
 
congenital defect when the maxillary bones do not fuse properly before birth
27
zygomatic bone
 
cheek bone
28
thorax
 
consists of 12 pairs of ribs, all attached to the spine
29
vertebral column
 
composed of 26 bones called vertebrae
30
vertebrae 
 
bony canal for the spinal cord
31
number of cervical vertebrae
 
seven
32
atlas
 
supports the skull
33
axis
 
makes rotation of the head possible
34
number of thoracic vertebrae
 
twelve
35
number of lumbar vertebrae
 
five
36
sacrum
 
five sacral vertebrae fused into a single bone
37
coccyx
 
tail of the vertebral column that consists of four or five fragmented fused vertebrae
38
intervertebral disks
 
flat, round structures that separate vertebrae
39
clavicle
 
collar bone
40
scapula
 
shoulder blade
41
humerus
 
 upper arm bone
42
carpals
 
wrist
43
metacarpals
 
palm
44
phalanges
 
fingers
45
femur
 
thigh bone that is the largest and strongest bone in the body
46
tibia
 
shin bone
47
fibula 
 
behind the tibia
48
tarsals
 
ankle bone
49
synovial joints
 
allow movement (kneecap)
50
synovial fluid
 
lubricating fluid
51
ankyl/o
 
stiffness; bent, crooked
52
arthr/o
 
joint
53
kyph/o
 
humpback
54
lord/o
 
curve, swayback
55
orth/o
 
straight
56
oste/o
 
bone
57
ped/o
 
foot; child
58
ped/i
 
foot; child
59
scoli/o
 
crooked, bent
60
thorac/o
 
chest
61
acromi/o
 
projection of the scapula
62
brachi/o
 
arm
63
calcane/o
 
heel bone
64
carp/o
 
wrist bone
65
cervic/o
 
neck; cervix uteri
66
cephal/o
 
head
67
pub/o
 
pelvis bone
68
cost/o
 
ribs
69
dactyl/o
 
fingers; toes
70
spondyl/o
 
vertebrae (backbone)
71
vertebr/o
 
vertebrae (backbone)
72
stern/o
 
sternum
73
lumb/o
 
loins (lower back)
74
metacarp/o
 
hand bones
75
metatars/o
 
foot bones
76
muscul/o
 
muscle
77
pod/o
 
foot
78
orthopedist
 
specializes in treatment of skeletal disorders
79
rheumatologist
 
specializes in treating joint disease
80
fracture
 
broken bone
81
closed (simple) fracture
 
bone is broken but no external wound exists
82
open (compound) fracture
 
bone is broken and an external wound exists
83
greenstick fracture
 
broken bone does not extend through the entire thickness of the bone (one side of bone is broken...
84
comminuted fracture
 
bone has broken or splintered into pieces
85
osteoporosis
 
metabolic bone disorder that is due to estrogen deficiencies associated with menopause, or...
86
three common spinal deviations
 
scoliosis, kyphosis, and lordosis
87
scoliosis
 
spine curves to the right or leftg
88
kyphosis
 
curving of the upper portion of the back (humpback)
89
lordosis
 
inward curve of the lower back
90
arthritis
 
inflammation of a joint
91
rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
 
systemic disease characterized by inflammatory changes in joints and can result in crippling...
92
osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease DJD)
 
most common type of arthritis
93
spurs
 
cartilage destruction and new formation of bone at edges of joints
94
gouty arthritis
 
(gout) metabolic disease caused by the accumulation of uric acid crystals in the blood
95
muscular dystrophy
 
genetic disease characterized by muscle degeneration
96
atrophy
 
wasting away of muscle
97
carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
 
compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel (wrist canal)
98
crepitation
 
dry, grating sound or sensation caused by bone ends rubbing together, indicating a fracture...
99
exacerbation
 
increase in severity of a disease 
100
phantom limb
 
perceived sensation, following amputation of a limb, that the limb still exists
101
prosthesis
 
replacement of a missing part by an artificial substitute 
102
rickets
 
form of osteomalacia (softening) in children caused by vitamin D deficiency
103
sprain
 
tearing of a ligament 
104
strain
 
muscular injury due to physical exertion
105
bone density tests
 
radiographic procedures that use low-energy x-ray absorption to measure bone mineral density...
106
reduction
 
procedure that restores a bone to its normal position
107
closed reduction
 
fracture bones are realigned by manipulation rather than by surgery
108
open reduction
 
bones are surgically realigned
109
arthrocentesis
 
puncture of a joint or space using a needle to remove accumulated fluid
110
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
 
decrease pain and suppress inflammation (can treat arthritis)

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