Chapter 10 Medical Terminology

Musculoskeletal. Anatomy.
  
Created May 20, 2009
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Side ASide B
skeletal muscles
action is under voluntary control
cardiac muscle
found only in the heart
smooth muscle
found everywhere and its actions are involuntary
tendon
connective tissue fibers that for a cord or strap and attaches muscle to bone
ligaments
flexible bands of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone
hematopoiesis
produce blood cells within bone marrow
short bones
include bones of the ankles, wrist and toes
irregular bones
make vertebra
flat bones
skull
long bones
found in appendages such as legs and arms
diaphysis 
the shaft or long portion of a bone
compact bone
forms a cylinder and surrounds a central canal
medullary cavity
central canal meeting a compact bone and contains yellow bone marrow
distal epiphysis & proximal epiphysis
are the two ends of a bone
articular cartilage
covers epiphyses and provides a smooth surface for joint movement
spongy bone
make up the epiphyses and encase red bone marrow
osteoblasts
bone-forming cells
osteoclast
bone destroying cells
diaphysis
bone shaft that contains compact bone
divisions of the skeletal system
contains 206 bones
cranium
protects the brain
fontanel
the soft spot on an infant
mandible
lower jaw bone
maxillae
paired upper jawbones
hard palate
roof of the mouth
cleft palate
congenital defect when the maxillary bones do not fuse properly before birth
zygomatic bone
cheek bone
thorax
consists of 12 pairs of ribs, all attached to the spine
vertebral column
composed of 26 bones called vertebrae
vertebrae 
bony canal for the spinal cord
number of cervical vertebrae
seven
atlas
supports the skull
axis
makes rotation of the head possible
number of thoracic vertebrae
twelve
number of lumbar vertebrae
five
sacrum
five sacral vertebrae fused into a single bone
coccyx
tail of the vertebral column that consists of four or five fragmented fused vertebrae
intervertebral disks
flat, round structures that separate vertebrae
clavicle
collar bone
scapula
shoulder blade
humerus
 upper arm bone
carpals
wrist
metacarpals
palm
phalanges
fingers
femur
thigh bone that is the largest and strongest bone in the body
tibia
shin bone
fibula 
behind the tibia
tarsals
ankle bone
synovial joints
allow movement (kneecap)
synovial fluid
lubricating fluid
ankyl/o
stiffness; bent, crooked
arthr/o
joint
kyph/o
humpback
lord/o
curve, swayback
orth/o
straight
oste/o
bone
ped/o
foot; child
ped/i
foot; child
scoli/o
crooked, bent
thorac/o
chest
acromi/o
projection of the scapula
brachi/o
arm
calcane/o
heel bone
carp/o
wrist bone
cervic/o
neck; cervix uteri
cephal/o
head
pub/o
pelvis bone
cost/o
ribs
dactyl/o
fingers; toes
spondyl/o
vertebrae (backbone)
vertebr/o
vertebrae (backbone)
stern/o
sternum
lumb/o
loins (lower back)
metacarp/o
hand bones
metatars/o
foot bones
muscul/o
muscle
pod/o
foot
orthopedist
specializes in treatment of skeletal disorders
rheumatologist
specializes in treating joint disease
fracture
broken bone
closed (simple) fracture
bone is broken but no external wound exists
open (compound) fracture
bone is broken and an external wound exists
greenstick fracture
broken bone does not extend through the entire thickness of the bone (one side of bone is broken...
comminuted fracture
bone has broken or splintered into pieces
osteoporosis
metabolic bone disorder that is due to estrogen deficiencies associated with menopause, or...
three common spinal deviations
scoliosis, kyphosis, and lordosis
scoliosis
spine curves to the right or leftg
kyphosis
curving of the upper portion of the back (humpback)
lordosis
inward curve of the lower back
arthritis
inflammation of a joint
rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
systemic disease characterized by inflammatory changes in joints and can result in crippling...
osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease DJD)
most common type of arthritis
spurs
cartilage destruction and new formation of bone at edges of joints
gouty arthritis
(gout) metabolic disease caused by the accumulation of uric acid crystals in the blood
muscular dystrophy
genetic disease characterized by muscle degeneration
atrophy
wasting away of muscle
carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel (wrist canal)
crepitation
dry, grating sound or sensation caused by bone ends rubbing together, indicating a fracture...
exacerbation
increase in severity of a disease 
phantom limb
perceived sensation, following amputation of a limb, that the limb still exists
prosthesis
replacement of a missing part by an artificial substitute 
rickets
form of osteomalacia (softening) in children caused by vitamin D deficiency
sprain
tearing of a ligament 
strain
muscular injury due to physical exertion
bone density tests
radiographic procedures that use low-energy x-ray absorption to measure bone mineral density...
reduction
procedure that restores a bone to its normal position
closed reduction
fracture bones are realigned by manipulation rather than by surgery
open reduction
bones are surgically realigned
arthrocentesis
puncture of a joint or space using a needle to remove accumulated fluid
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
decrease pain and suppress inflammation (can treat arthritis)


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