Chapter 10 Medical Terminology

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Chapter 10 Medical Terminology

Musculoskeletal. Anatomy.

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skeletal muscles
 
action is under voluntary control
cardiac muscle
 
found only in the heart
smooth muscle
 
found everywhere and its actions are involuntary
tendon
 
connective tissue fibers that for a cord or strap and attaches muscle to bone
ligaments
 
flexible bands of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone
hematopoiesis
 
produce blood cells within bone marrow
short bones
 
include bones of the ankles, wrist and toes
irregular bones
 
make vertebra
flat bones
 
skull
long bones
 
found in appendages such as legs and arms
diaphysis 
 
the shaft or long portion of a bone
compact bone
 
forms a cylinder and surrounds a central canal
medullary cavity
 
central canal meeting a compact bone and contains yellow bone marrow
distal epiphysis & proximal epiphysis
 
are the two ends of a bone
articular cartilage
 
covers epiphyses and provides a smooth surface for joint movement
spongy bone
 
make up the epiphyses and encase red bone marrow
osteoblasts
 
bone-forming cells
osteoclast
 
bone destroying cells
diaphysis
 
bone shaft that contains compact bone
divisions of the skeletal system
 
contains 206 bones
cranium
 
protects the brain
fontanel
 
the soft spot on an infant
mandible
 
lower jaw bone
maxillae
 
paired upper jawbones
hard palate
 
roof of the mouth
cleft palate
 
congenital defect when the maxillary bones do not fuse properly before birth
zygomatic bone
 
cheek bone
thorax
 
consists of 12 pairs of ribs, all attached to the spine
vertebral column
 
composed of 26 bones called vertebrae
vertebrae 
 
bony canal for the spinal cord
number of cervical vertebrae
 
seven
atlas
 
supports the skull
axis
 
makes rotation of the head possible
number of thoracic vertebrae
 
twelve
number of lumbar vertebrae
 
five
sacrum
 
five sacral vertebrae fused into a single bone
coccyx
 
tail of the vertebral column that consists of four or five fragmented fused vertebrae
intervertebral disks
 
flat, round structures that separate vertebrae
clavicle
 
collar bone
scapula
 
shoulder blade
humerus
 
 upper arm bone
carpals
 
wrist
metacarpals
 
palm
phalanges
 
fingers
femur
 
thigh bone that is the largest and strongest bone in the body
tibia
 
shin bone
fibula 
 
behind the tibia
tarsals
 
ankle bone
synovial joints
 
allow movement (kneecap)
synovial fluid
 
lubricating fluid
ankyl/o
 
stiffness; bent, crooked
arthr/o
 
joint
kyph/o
 
humpback
lord/o
 
curve, swayback
orth/o
 
straight
oste/o
 
bone
ped/o
 
foot; child
ped/i
 
foot; child
scoli/o
 
crooked, bent
thorac/o
 
chest
acromi/o
 
projection of the scapula
brachi/o
 
arm
calcane/o
 
heel bone
carp/o
 
wrist bone
cervic/o
 
neck; cervix uteri
cephal/o
 
head
pub/o
 
pelvis bone
cost/o
 
ribs
dactyl/o
 
fingers; toes
spondyl/o
 
vertebrae (backbone)
vertebr/o
 
vertebrae (backbone)
stern/o
 
sternum
lumb/o
 
loins (lower back)
metacarp/o
 
hand bones
metatars/o
 
foot bones
muscul/o
 
muscle
pod/o
 
foot
orthopedist
 
specializes in treatment of skeletal disorders
rheumatologist
 
specializes in treating joint disease
fracture
 
broken bone
closed (simple) fracture
 
bone is broken but no external wound exists
open (compound) fracture
 
bone is broken and an external wound exists
greenstick fracture
 
broken bone does not extend through the entire thickness of the bone (one side of bone is broken other side is bent)
comminuted fracture
 
bone has broken or splintered into pieces
osteoporosis
 
metabolic bone disorder that is due to estrogen deficiencies associated with menopause, or a diet lacking vitamins or calcium
three common spinal deviations
 
scoliosis, kyphosis, and lordosis
scoliosis
 
spine curves to the right or leftg
kyphosis
 
curving of the upper portion of the back (humpback)
lordosis
 
inward curve of the lower back
arthritis
 
inflammation of a joint
rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
 
systemic disease characterized by inflammatory changes in joints and can result in crippling deformities, believed to be caused by an autoimmune reaction
osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease DJD)
 
most common type of arthritis
spurs
 
cartilage destruction and new formation of bone at edges of joints
gouty arthritis
 
(gout) metabolic disease caused by the accumulation of uric acid crystals in the blood
muscular dystrophy
 
genetic disease characterized by muscle degeneration
atrophy
 
wasting away of muscle
carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
 
compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel (wrist canal)
crepitation
 
dry, grating sound or sensation caused by bone ends rubbing together, indicating a fracture or joint destruction
exacerbation
 
increase in severity of a disease 
phantom limb
 
perceived sensation, following amputation of a limb, that the limb still exists
prosthesis
 
replacement of a missing part by an artificial substitute 
rickets
 
form of osteomalacia (softening) in children caused by vitamin D deficiency
sprain
 
tearing of a ligament 
strain
 
muscular injury due to physical exertion
bone density tests
 
radiographic procedures that use low-energy x-ray absorption to measure bone mineral density (BMD)
reduction
 
procedure that restores a bone to its normal position
closed reduction
 
fracture bones are realigned by manipulation rather than by surgery
open reduction
 
bones are surgically realigned
arthrocentesis
 
puncture of a joint or space using a needle to remove accumulated fluid
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
 
decrease pain and suppress inflammation (can treat arthritis)